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poet, makes mention of our nation, and informs us that it came to the affiftance of king Xerxes, in his expedition against Greece. For in his enumeration of all those nations, he last of all inserts ours among the reft, when he says:

“ At the last there passed over a people, wonderful to be be. held; for they spake the Phenician tongue with their mouths ; they dwelt in the Soly mean mountains, near a broad lake : Their heads were sooty ; they had round rasures on them : Their heads and faces were like nasty horse heads also, that had been hardened in the smoke.” . I think, therefore, that it is evident to every body that Chę. rilus means us, because the Soly mean mountians are in vur country, wherein we inhabit, as is also the lake called Asphal, ditis ;; for this is a broader and larger lake chan any other that is in Syria: And thus does Cherilus make mention of us. But now that not only the lowest sort of the Grecians, but those that are had in the greatest admiration for their philolophic improve ments among ihem. did not only know the Jews, but, when they Jighted up any of them, admired them also, it is easy for any one to know. For Clearchus, who was the scholar ot Aristotle, and interior to no one of the peripatetics whomloever, in his first book concerning leep, says, "That Aristotle bis maller reJaced what follows of a Jew," and sets down Ariftotle's own discourse with him. The account is this, as written down by him : “Now, for a great part of what this Jew said, it would be too long to recite it ; but what includes in it both wonder and philosophy, it may not be amiss to discourle of. Now, that I may be plain with thee, Hyperochides, I shall herein seem to thee to relate wonders, and wha will resemble dreams themselves. Hereupon Hy perochides answered modestly, and said, for that very reason it is that all of us are very desirous of hearing what thou art going to lay. Then replied Aristotle, For this caule it will be the best way to imitate that rule of the rhetoricians, which requires us first to give an account of the man, and of what nation he was, that lo we may not conAradiet our master's directions. Then said Hy perochides, Go on, if it so pleases thee. This man then answered Aristotle] was by birth a Jew, and came from Celely ria : These Jews are derived from the Indian philolophers; they are named by the Indians Calami, and by the Syrians Judæi, and took their name from the country they inhabit, which is called Judea ; but for the name of their city it is a very awkward one, for they called it Jerusalem. Now this man, when he was hoipitably treated by a great many, came down from the upper country to the places near the sea, and became a Grecian, not only in his language, but in his soul also; inlomuch that when we ourselves happened to be in Afia about the same places whither he came, he conversed with us, and with other philosophical perfons, and made a trial of our skill in philosonghy: And as he had lived with many learned men, he communicated to us more information than he received from us.” This is Aristotle's account of the matter, as given us by Clearchus; which Aristotle discoursed also particularly of the great and wonderful fortitude of this Jew in his diet, and continent way of living, as those that please may learn more about him from Clearchus's book itself; forlavoid setting down any more than is sufficient for my purpose. Now, Clearchus said this by way of digreffion, for his main design was of another nature. But for Hecateus of Abdera, who was both a philosopher, and one very useful in an activelite, he was contemporary with king Alexander in his youth, and afterward was with Ptolemy, the ion of Lagus; he did not write about the Jewish affairs by the by only, but composed an entire book concerning the Jews themselves, out ot which book I am willing to run over a tew things, of which I have been treating by way of epitome. And, in the first place, I will demonstrate the time wben this Heca. seus lived; tor he mentions the fight that was between Ptolemy and Demetrius about Gaza, which was fought on the eleventh year after the death of Alexander, and on the hundred and sev. enteenth olympiad, as Castor says in his history. For when he had set down this olympiad, he says farther, “That on this olympiad Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, beat in battle Deme. trius, the son of Antigonus, who was named Poliorcetes, at Gaza.” Now it'is agreed by all that Alexander died on the hundred and fourteenth olympiad ; it is therefore evident that our nation flourished in his iime, and in the time of Alexander. Again, Hecatens says to the same purpose, as follows : "Ptol. emy got possession of the places in Syria after that battle at Gaza ; and many, when they heard of Prolemy's moderation and humanity, went along with him to Egypt, and were wil. Jing to offift him in his affairs; one of which (Hecateus fays) was Hezekiab*, the high-priest of the Jews; a man of about fixty-six years of age, and in great dignity among bis own people. He was a very sensible man, and could speak very movingly, and was very skilful in the management of affairs, if any other man ever were so; although, as he says, all the priests of the Jews took tythes of the products of the earth, and managed public affairs, and were in number not above fif. teen hundred at the most." Hecateus mentions this Hezekiah a second time, and says, That “ as he was possessed of so great a dignity, and was become tamiliar with us, lo did he take certain of those that were with him, and explained to them all the circumstances of their people ; for he had all their habitastions and polity down in writing.” Moreover, Hecateus de. clares again, “what regard we have for our laws, and that we

• This Hezekiah, who is here called an high priest, is not named in Josephus's catalogue : the real high priest at that time being rather Olias, as Arehbishop Usber fupposes. However, Jolephus often ules the word high priests in the plural number, as living many at the fame time. Sve the apte on Antiq, Book XX. chap: suri 9.8. Vol. II.

resolve to endure any thing rather than transgress them, ber cause we think it right for us to do so." Whereupon he adds, That " although they are in a bad reputation among their neighbours, and among all those that come to them, and have been often treated injuriously by the kings and governors o! Persia, yet can they not be dissuaded from acting but what they think beft; but that when they are stripped on this account, and have torments inflicted upon them, and they are brought to the most terrible kinds of death, they meet them after an extraordinary manner, beyond all other people, and will not renounce the religion of their foretathers." Hecateus also produces demonstrations not a few of this their resolute te. naciousnels of their laws, when he speaks thus :: “ Alexander was once at Babylon, and had an intention to rebuild the temple of Belus that was fallen to decay, and in order thereto, he commanded all his soldiers in general to bring earth thither : But the Jews, and they only, would not comply with that command ; nay, they underwent stripes and great losses of what they had on this account, till the king forgave them, and permitted them to live in quiet." He adds farther, That " when the Macedonians came to them into that country, and demolished the sold] temples and the altars they assisted them in demolishing them all *; but (for not affifting them in rebuilding them they either underwent losses, or sometimes obtained forgiveness.” He adds farther, That “ these men den serve to be admired on that account.” He also speaks of the mighty pipulousness of our nation, and says, That" the Per

fians formerly carried away many ten thousands of our people to Babylon as also that not a lew ten thousands were removed after Alexander's death into Egypt and Phenicia, by reason of the sedition that was arisen in Syria.” The same perfon takes notice in his history, how large the country is which we inhabite as well as of its excellent character, and says, That." the land in which the Jews inhabii contains three million of arouræt.

So I read the text with Havercamp, though the place be difficult. + This number of aroure or Egyptian acres, 3.000.000, each arourae containing a square of 100 Egyptian cubits (being about three quarters of an English acre, and just twice the area of the court of the Jewish tabernacle as contained in the country of Judea, will be about one third of the entire number of arourae in the whole land of judea, lappoling it 160 measured miles long, and severity such miles broad : Which eftimation, tor the fruit!ul parts of it, as perhaps here in Hecateus, is nog therefore very wide from the truth The go furlongs in compass for the city Jerufalem prelently are not very wide from the truth also, as Josephus hinn self de Scribes it, who, of the War, Book V, ch iv. 3. vol ill mak:s its wall 33 turlongs, besides the fuburbs and gardens; nay, he says, Book xii. sec. X that Titus's wall about it at some smail distance, atter the gardens and suburbs were destroyed, was not lets than 39 furlongs. Nor perhaps were its constant inhabitu ants, in the days of Hecateus, inany more than thele 120,000, because room was als ways to be lett for vastly greater numbers which came up at the three great feitivals, to lay nothing of the probable increale in their number between the days of Hecateus and Jofephus, which was at least 200 years. But fee a more authentic account of lome of thel nga!ures in my description of the Jewish scmples. Howeves, **

and is generally of a most excellent and most fruitfuf foil : nor is Judea of lesser dimencions." The fame man describes our city Jerusalem also itself as of a mostexcellent ftructure, and very large and inhabited from the most ancient times. He alfo discourses of the multitude of men in it, and of the confirullion of our temple, after the following manner': “There are many

ftrong places and villages (says he) in the country of Judea; but one strong city there is, about fitiy furlongs in circumfer. ence*, which is inhabited by an hundred and iwenty thod. fand meu, or thereabout* : They call it Jerusale.n. There is about the middle of the city a wall of stone, whose length is five hundred feet, and breadth an hundred cubits, with dou. ble cloisters; wherein there is a square altar, not made of hewn ftone, but composed of white ftones gathered together, having each side tweniy cubits long, and its altitude ten cubits, Hard by it is a large edifice, wherein there is an altar and a candle. stick both of gold, and in weight two talents: Upon thefe there is a light that is never extinguished, either by night of by day. There is no image, nor any thing, nor any dona. tions therein : Nothing at all is there planted, neither grove, ñor any thing of that fort. The priests abide therein both nights and days, performing certain purifications, and drink. ing not the least drop of wine while they are in the temple." Moreover, he attefts that we Jews went as auxiliaries along with king Alexander, and after him with bis fucceffor. I will add farther what he says he learned, when he was himself with the same army, concerning the actions of a man that was a Jew. His words are these : As I was myself going to the Red Ses, there followed us a man whose name was Mofollam: He was one of the Jewish horlemen who conducted us : He was a per. son of great courage, of a strong body, and by all allowed to be the most skilful archer that was either among the Greeks or barbarians. Now this man, as people were in great num. bers passing along the road, and a certain augur was observing an augury by a bird, and requiring them all to stand still, inquired what they staid for? Hereupon the augur fhewed him the bird from whence he took bis augury, and told him that if the bird flaid where he was, they ought all to ftand fill; but that if he got up, and flew onward, they muft go forward, but that if he flew backward, they must serire again. Mofollam made no reply, but drew his bow, and shot at the bird, and hit him, and killed him ; and as the augur and some others were very angry, and wished imprecations upon him, he answered them thus ? Why are you to mad as to take this most unhappy bird into your hands ? for how can this are not to expect that iuch heathens as Cherilus or Hecateus, or the rest that are cised by jofephus and Eufebius, could avoid making inany mistakes in the Jewish bittee ty, while yet they strongly confirm the fame hiftory in the general, and are noft valuable attestations to those more authentic accounts we have in the scriptora 38 Josephus concercing them.

* See the above note.

bird give us any true information concerning our march, who could not foresee how to save himself; for had he been able to foreknow what was future, he would not have come to this place, but would have been afraid leit Mosollam the Jew should Thoot at him, and kill him." But of Hecateus's teftimonies we have said enough; lor as to such as deGre to know more of thein, they may easily obrain them from his book itself. How. ever, I Shall not think it too much for me to name Agatharchi. des, as having made mention of us Jews, though in way of derision at our fanplicity, as he supposes it to be ; for when he was discoursing of the affairs of Siratonice,“ how she came out ot Macedonia into Syria, and left her husband Demetrius, while yet Seleucus would not marry her as she expected, but dur. ing the time of his raising an army at Babylon, stirred up a fedition about Antioch ; and how after that the king came back, and upon his taking of Antioch, me fled to Seleucia, and had it in her power to sail away immediately, yet did the comply with a dream which forbade her so to do, and so was caught, and put to death.” When Agatharchides had premised this story, and had jefted upon Stratonice for her superstition, he gives a like example of what was reported concerning us, and writes thus : " There are a people called Jews, and dwell in a city the strongest of all other cities, which the inbabitants call Jerusalem, and are accustomed to reston every seventh day* ; on which times they make no ule of their arms, nor meddle with husbandry, nor take care of any affairs of life, but spread out their hands in their holy places, and pray till the evening. Now it came to pass, that when Ptolemy the son of Lagus came into this city with his army, that these men, in observing this mad custom of theirs, instead of guarding the city, suffered their country to submit itself to a bitter lord ; and their lawt was openly proved to have commanded a tool. ish practice. This accident taught all other men but the Jews to disregard such dreams as these were, and not to follow the like idle suggestions delivered as a law, when, in such uncertainty of human reasonings, they are at a loss what they should do." Now this our procedure seems a ridiculous thing to A. gatharchides, but will appear to such as consider it without prejudice a great thing, and what deserved a great many encoiniums ; I mean, when certain men constantly prefer the observation of their laws, and their religion towards God, be. fore the prelervation of themselves and their country.

23. Now that some writers have omitted to mention our na. tion, nor because they knew nothing of us, but because they envied us, or for some other unjustifiable reasons, I think I

• A glorious testimony this of the observation of the Sabbath by the Jews. See Antiq. Book XVI chap. ii. fect. 4 and chap vi, sect. 2 Vol. III. the Life, fect. 64. Vol. II. and War, Book IV. chap ix fect, 12 Vol lll.

+ Not their law, but the fuperftitious interpretation of their leaders, which nei. ther the Maccabies nor our bleited Saviour did ever approve of. Voi. III.

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