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exploiis, we had just reason to look upon ourselves as baving him for a divine governor and counsellor. And when he bad first* persuaded himself that his actions and designs were a. grecable to God's will, he thought it his duty to imprint, a. bove all things, that notion upon the multitude; for those who have once believed that God is the inspecior of their lives, will not permit themselves in any fin And this is the character of our legillator, he was no impostor, no deceiver, as his revilers say, though unjustly, but such an one as they brag Minost to have been among the Greeks, and other les gislators after him ; for fome of them suppose, that they had their laws from Jupiter, while Minos faid, that the revelation of his laws was to be referred to Apollo, and his oracle at Del. phi, whether they really thought they were so derived, or sup. posed, however, that they could persuade the people eally that so it was. But which of these it was who made the best laws, and which had the greatest reason to believe that God was their author, it will be easy, upon comparing those laws themselves together, to deterinine; for it is time that we come to that point.IJI Now there are innumerable differences in the particular cuftoms and laws that are among all mankind, which a man may briefly reduce under the following heads : Some legiflators have permitted their governments to be under monarchies, others put them under oligarchies, and others under a republican forin; but our legislator had no regard to a. ny of these forms, but he ordained our government to be, what, by a strained expression, may be terıned a Theocracy,
This language, that Mofes, Weitas etv5HY, perfuaded himself that what he did was according to God's will, can mean no inore by Jolephus's own constant mo. tions el sewhere, than what he was firm'y perfuaded, that le bad fully satisfied kisl. that so it was, viz. by the many revelations he had received from God, and the numerous miracles God had enabled him to work, as he both in these very two books against Apior, and in his Avtiquities moft clearly and frequently allures Bs. This is larther evident from several palsages lower, where he affirms, that Mola was no impostor nor deceiver, and where he assures us, that Moses's conftitution of government was no other than a theocracy; and where he says, they are to hope for deliverance out of their distresses by prayer to God, and that withal it was owing in part to this prophetic spirit of Mols, that the Jews expectea a resurrection from the dead See almost as strange an use of the like words THO6Tv To Otor, to pero firade God, Antiq. B. VI. ch. v, ø 6. Vol. I.
+ That is, Moses really was, what the heathen legislators pretended to be, under a divine direction : Nor does it yet appear that these pretensions to a supernatural conduct, either in chefe legislators or oracles, were mere delusions of men, without any demoniacai impressions, nor that Jolephus took them so to be, as the ancienteit. and contemporary authors did ftill believe them to be supernatural.
# This whole very large passage from ( ) to .*, is corrected by Dr. Hudfon, from Eufebius's citation of it, Præp. Evangel viii 8. which is here not a little dif. ferent from the present MSS. of Josephus,
This expression itself, O coxfutiar aTEO E SES TO TORSTEU", That « Moses ordaired the J:wish government io le a Theocracy,” may be illustrated by that pare allel expression in the Antiquities B. III. ch viii. fec. g. Vol I that "Moses left it to God to be present at his facrifice when he pleased, and when he plasted to be abfent." Both ways of speaking sound barsh in the ears of Jews and Chrutians,
by ascribing the authority and the power to God, and by perfuading all the people to have a regard to him, as the author of all the good things that were enjoyed either in common by all mankind, or by each one in particular, and of all that they themselves obtained by praying to him in their greatest difficul. ties. He informed them, that it was impossible to escape God's observation, even in any of our outward actions, or in any of our inward thoughts. Moreover he represented Gou* as un. begotten, and immutable, through all eternity, superior to all mortal conceptions in pulchritude ; and, though known to us by his power, yet unknown to us as to his essence. I do not now explain how these notions of God are the sentiments of the wifest among the Grecians, and how they were taught them upon the principles that he afforded them. However, they tellity, with great assurance, that these notions are just, and agreeable to the nature of God, and to his majesty; for Pythagoras, and Anaxagoras, and Plato, and the stoic philosophers that succeeded them, and almost all the rest, are of the same sentiments, and had the same notions of the nature of God; yet durft not these men disclole those true notions to more ihan a tew, because the body of the people were prejudiced with other opinions beforehand. But our legislator, who made his actions agree to his laws, did not only prevail with those that were his contemporaries to agree with these his no. tions, but to firmly imprinted this faith in God upon all their posterity, that it never could be removed. The reason why the constitution of this legislation was ever better directed to .the utility of all, than other legillations were, is this, That Moses did not make religion a part of virtue, but he saw and he ordained other virtues to be parts of religion ; I mean jul. tice, and fortitude, and temperance, and an universal agree. ment of the members of the community with one another : For all our actions and studies, and all our words fin Moses's settlement have a reference to piety towards God; for he hath Jeft none of these in suspense, or undetermined. For there are two ways of coming at any sort of learning, and a moral conduct of life; the one is by instruction in words, the other by practical exerciles. Now other lawgivers have separated thele two ways in their opinions, and choosing one of those ways of instruction, or that which beft pleased every one of them neglected the other. Thus did the Lacedemonians, and the Cretians teach by practical exercises, but not by words; while the Athenians, and almoft all the other Grecians, made laws about what was to be done, or left undone, but had no regard to that exercising them thereto in practice.
as do several other which Josephus uses to the Heathens ; but still they were not very improper in him, when he all along thought fit to accommodate himself, both in his Antiquities, and in these his books against Apion, all written for the use of -the Greeks and Romans, to their notions and language, and this as far as ever truth would give him leave Though it be very observable withal, that he never uses such expressions in his books of the War, written originally for the Jews beyond Euphrates, and in their language, in all these cales. However, Josephus dire&ly fupposes the Jewish (ttlement, under Moses, to be a divine settlement, and indeed no other than a real Theocracy.
* These excellent accounts of the divine attributes, and that God is not to be ab all known in his essence, as also some other clear expressions about the resurrection of the dead, and the state of departed souls, &c. in this late work of Jolephus's, lopks more like the exalted notions of the Ellens, or rather Ebionite Chriftians, than of a merc jew or Pharisee. The following large accounts also of the laws of Mofes, seem to me to shew a regard to the higher interpretations and improvements of Moses's laws, derived from Jesus Christ, than to the bare letter of them in the Old Testament, whence alone jolephus took them when he wrote his Antiquities : Nor, as I think, can some of these laws, though generally excellent in their kind, be properly now found either in the copies of the Jewish Pentateuch, or in Philo, or in Josephus himself, before he became a Nazarene or Ebionite Christian, nor eren all of them among the laws of Catholic Christianity themselves. I desire, therefore, the learned reader to consider, whether some of these improvements or interpretations might not be peculiar to the Ellens among the Jews, or rather to the Nazarenes or Ebionites among the Christians ; though we have indeed but imperfect accounts of shole Nazarenes or Ebionite Chrißians transmitted down to us at this day.
18. But for our legislator, he very carefully joined these two methods of instruction together : For he neither left chele pra&tical exercifes to go on without verbal instruction, nor did he permit the hearing
of the law to proceed without the exercises for practice; but beginning iminediately from the earliest infancy, and the appointment of every one's diet, he left nothing of the very smallest consequence to be done at the pleasure and disposal of the perfon himselt: Accordingly he made a fixed rule of law what forts of food they should abstain from, and what forts they should make use of, as also what com. munion they should have with others; what great diligence they should use in their occupations, and what times of reft fhould be interposed; that, by living under that law as under a tather and a master, we might be guilty of no lin, neither voluntary nor out of ignorance; for he did not suffer ihe guilt of ignorance to go on without punishment, but demonftrated the law to be the best and the most neceffary instruction of all other, permitting the people to leave off their other employ, ments, and to allemble together for the hearing of the law, and learning it exacily, and this not once or twice, or ottener, but every week ; which thing all the other legislators seem to bave neglccted.
19. And indeed, the greatest part of mankind are so far from living according to their own laws, that they hardly know them ; but when they have finned, they learn from others that they have tranfgrefled the law. Those allo who are in the highest and principal posts of the government contefs, they are not acquainted with those laws, and are obliged to take such perlons for their afleflors in public administracions, as profess to have fill in those laws: But for our people, if any body do but ask any one of them about our laws, he will more read. ily tell them all than he will tell his own name, and this in consequence of our having learned them immediately as love
as ever we became sensible of any thing, and of our having them as it were engraven on our louls. Our transgressors of skem are but few, and it is impossible, when any do offend, to escape punishment.
20. And this very thing it is that principally creates such a wonderful agreement of minds amongst us all ; for this entirc agreement of ours in all our notions concerning God, and our having no difference in our course of lite and manners, procures among us the most excellent concord of these our manners that is any where among mankind : For no other peo. ple but we Jews have avoided all discourses about God that a. ny way contradict one another, which yet are frequent among other nations ; and this is true not only among ordinary perfons, according as every one is affected, but some of the phi. losophers have been insolent enough to indulge such contradiétions, while some of them have undertaken to use such words as entirely take away the nature of God, as others of them have taken away his providence over mankind. Nor can any one perceive among it us any difference in the conduct of our lives, but all our works are common to us all. We have one fort of discourle concerning God, which is conformable to our law, and affirms that he sees all things ; as also we have but one way of speaking concerning the conduct of our lives, that all other things ought to have piety for their end ; and this any body may hear from our women, and servants themselves.
21. And indeed, hence hath arisen that accusation which some make against us, that we have not produced men that have been the inventors of new operations, or of new ways of speaking; for others think it a fine thing to persevere in nothing that has been delivered down from their forefathers, and these teftify it to be an instance of the thai peft wildom when thele men venture to tranfgress those traditions ; whereas we, on the contrary, suppole it to be our only wisdom and virtue to admit no actions nor supposals that are contrary to our o. riginal laws; which procedure of ours is a juft and sure sign that our law is admirably constituted; for such laws as are not thus well made, are convicted upon trial to want amendment.
22. But while we are ourselves persuaded, that our law was made agreeably to the will of God, and it would be impious for us to observe the same ; for what is there in it that any body would change ? and what can be invented that is better? or what can we take out of other people's laws that will ex. ceed it? Perhaps some would have the entire settlement of our government altered. And where shall we find a better or more righrecus constitution than ours, while this makes us el. teem God to be the governor of the universe, and permits the priests in general to be the administrators of the principal af. fairs, and withal intrufts the government over the other priests to the chief high priest himself : Which priests our legislator at their firft appointment, did not advance to that dignity for théir riches, or any abundance of other possessions, or any plenty they had, as the gifts of fortune; but he intrufled the principal management of divine worship to those that exceeded o hers in an ability to persuade men, and in prudence of conduct. Thele men had the main care of the law and of the other parts of the people's conduét committed to them; for they were the priests who were ordained to be the spectators of all, and the judges in doubtful cases, and the punishers of thole that were condemned to suffer punilhment.
23. What form of government then can be more holy than this? what more worthy kind of worship can be paid to God than we pay, where the entire body of the people are preparei for religion, where an extraordinary degree of care is required in the priells, and where the whole polity is so ordered as if it were a certain religious solemnity ? For what things foreigners, when they solemnize such festivals, are not able to ob. serve for a few days time, and call them mysteries and sacred ceremonies, we observe with great pleasure and an unlhaken resolution during our whole lives. What are the things then that we are commanded or forbidden ? They are simply and easily known. The first command is concerning God, and affirms that God contains all things, and is a being every way perfect and happy, self-Sufficient, and lupplying all other be. ings; the beginning, the middle and the end of all things. He is maniteit in his works and benefits, and more conspicu. ous than any other being whatsoever ; but as to his form and magnitude he is most obscure. All materials, let them be ever do coftly, are unworthy to compose an image for him, and all arts are unartful to express the notion we ought to have of him. We can neither see nor think of any thing like him, nor is i agreeable to piety to form a relemblance of him. We see his works, the ligbt, the heaven, the earth, the sun and the moon, the waters, thegenerations of animals, the productions of fruits. Thele things hath God made, not with hands, not with Jabor, nor as wanting the asıltance of any to co-operate with him; but as his will resolved they should be made and be good also, they were made, and became good immediately. All mes ought to follow this being, and to worship hin in the exercile of virtue; for this way of worship of God is the most boly of all others.
24. There ought also to be but One temple for One God; for likeness is the constant foundation of agreement. This temple ought to be common to all men, becaule he is the common God of all men. His priests are to be continually about his worship, over whom he that is the first by his birth is to be zhcir ruler perpetually. His business must be to offer facrifi. ces to God, together with those priests that are joined with him, to see that the laws be observed, to determine controver. fies, and to punish those that are convicted of ac justice; while he that does not submit to him ball be subject to the lame pus