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exploiis, we had just reason to look upon ourselves as having him for a divine governor and counsellor. And when he bad first* persuaded himself that his actions and designs were a. greeable to God's will, he thought it his duty to imprint, a. bove all things, that notion upon the multitude; for those who have once believed that God is the inspecior of their lives, will not permit themselves in any sin And this is the character of our legislator, be was no impostor, no deceiver, as his revilers say, though unjustly, but such an one as they brag Minost to have been among the Greeks, and other les gillators after him ; for some of them fuppose, that they had their laws from Jupiter, while Minos said, that the revelation of his laws was to be referred to Apollo, and his oracle at Del. phi, whether they really thought they were so derived, or sup, posed, however, that they could persuade the people eally that so it was. But which of these it was who made the beit laws, and which had the greatest reason to believe that God was their author, it will be easy, upon comparing those laws themelves together, to deterinine; for it is time that we come to that point.Now there are innumerable differences in the particular customs and laws that are among all mankind, which a man may briefly reduce under the following heads : Some legislators have permitted their governments to be under monarchies, others put them under oligarchies, and others under a republican forin ; but our legislator had no regard to a. ny of these forms, but he ordained our government to be, what, by a strained expression, may be termed a Theocraty,
* This language, that Mofes, Teicas evşey, perfuaded himself that what he did was according to God's will, can mean no inore by Julephus's own constant notions elsewhere, than what he was firmy perfuaded, that ke bad fully satisfied hie felt that so it was, viz. by the many reclutions he had received from God, and the numerous miracles God had enabled him to work, as he both in these very two books against Apior, and in his Antiquities moft clearly and frequently allures us. This is larther evident from several paliages lower, where he affirms, that Moiss was no impostor nor deceiver, and where he afføres us, that Moses's conftitution of government was no other than a theccracy; and where he says, they are to hope for deliverance out of their distresles by prayer to God, and that withal it was owing in part to this prophetic spirit of Mosis, that the Jews expectea a relurrection from the dead See almost as strange an use of the like words THOTY TOL Otor, to pre fuade God, Antiq. B. VI. ch. v, ø 6. Vol. I.
+ That is, Moses really was, what the heathen legislators pretended to be, under a divine direction : Nor does it yet appear that these pretentions to a supernatural conduct, either in ihese legislators or oracles, were mere delusions of men, without any demoniacal impressions, nor that Jofephus took them so to be, as the ancienteit and contemporary authors did still believe them to be supernatural.
# This whole very large paffage from 1 to *., is corrected by Dr. Hudson, from Eufebius's citation of it, Præp. Evangel viii 8. which is here not a little dif. ferent from the present MSS. of Josephus.
This expression itself, O 1oxfariZv aTEO LOVES TO Trostruke, That “ Moses ordaired the Jewish government io te à Theocracy,” may be illustrated by that para allel expression in the Antiquities B. III. ch vii fec. Q. Vol I that “ Moses let it to God to be present at his facrifice when he pleased, and when he plesed to be abfent." Both ways of speaking sound barsh in the ears of Jews and Chritians, by ascribing the authority and the power to God, and by perfuading all the people to have a regard to him, as the author of all the good things that were enjoyed either in common by all mankind, or by each one in particular, and of all that they themselves obtained by praying to himintheir greatest difficul. ties. He informed them, that it was impossible to escape God's observation, even in any of our outward actions, or in any of our inward thoughts. Moreover he represented Gou* as un. begotten, and immutable, through all eternity, superior to all mortal conceptions in pulchritude ; and, though known to us by his power, yet unknown to us as to his essence. I do not now explain how these notions of God are the sentiments of the wiselt among the Grecians, and how they were taught them upon the principles that he afforded them. However, they tel. sify, with great assurance, that these notions are just, and agreeable to the nature of God, and to his majesty ; for Pythagoras, and Anaxagoras, and Plato, and the stoic philolophers that succeeded them, and almost all the rest, are of the same sentiments, and had the same notions of the nature of God; yet durst not these men disclole those true notions to more than a few, because the body of the people were prejudiced with other opinions beforehand. But our legislator, who made his actions agree to his laws, did not only prevail with those that were his contemporaries to agree with these his no. tions, but lo firmly imprinted this faith in God upon all their posterity, that it never could be removed. The reason why the constitution of this legislation was ever better directed to the utility of all, than other legislations were, is this, That
as do leveral other which Josephus uses to the Heathens ; but still they were not very improper in him, when he all along thought fit to accommodate himself, both in his Antiquities, and in these his books against Apion, all written for the use of -the Greeks and Romans, to their notions and language, and this as far as ever truth would give him leave Though it be very observable withal, that he never uses such expressions in his books of the War, written originally for the Jews beyond Euphrates, and in their language, in all these cales. However, Josephus direAly fupposes the Jewish sitelement, under Moses, to be a divine settlement, and indeed no other than a real Theocracy.
These excellent accounts of the divine attributes, and that God is not to be at all known in his ellence, as also some other clear expressions about the resurrection of the dead, and the state of departed souls, &c. in this late work of Joicphus's, lopks more like the exalted notions of the Ellens, or rather Ebionite Christians, than of a merc few or Pharisee. The following large accounts also of the laws of Mofes, seem to me to shew a regard to the higher interpretations and improvements of Moses's laws, derived from Jesus Christ, than to the bare letter of them in the Old Testament, whence alone olephus took them when he wrote his Antiquities : Nor, as I think, can some of these laws, though generally excellent in their kind, be properly now found either in the copies of the Jewish Pentateuch, or in Philo, or in Josephus himself, before he became a Nazarene or Ebionile Chriftian, nor eren all of them among the laws of Catholic Christianity themselves. I desire, therefore, the learned reader to consider, whether some of these improvements or in.terpretations might not be peculiar to the Ellens among the Jews, or rather to the
Nazarenes or Ebionites among the Christians ; though we have indeed but imper'fect accounts of thole Nazarenes or Ebionite Chrifians transmitted down to us at this day.
Moses did not make religion a part of virtue, but he saw and he ordained other virtues to be parts of religion ; I mean juí. tice, and fortitude, and temperance, and an universal agreement of the members of the community with one another : For all our actions and studies, and all our words in Moses's settlement s'have a reference to piery towards God; for he hath Jeft none of these in suspense, or undetermined. For there are two ways of coming at any sort of learning, and a moral conduct of life; the one is by instruction in words, the other by practical exerciles. Now other lawgivers have separated these two ways in their opinions, and choosing one of thole ways of instruction, or that which beft pleased every one of them neglected the other. Thus did the Lacedemonians, and the Cretians teach by practical exercises, but not by words ; while the Athenians, and almost all the other Grecians, made laws about what was to be done, or left undone, but had no regard to that exercising them thereto in praćtice.
18. But for our legislator, he very carefully joined these two methods of instruction together : For he neither left thele practical exercifes to go on without verbal instruction, nor did he permit the hearing of the law to proceed without the exercises for practice; but beginning iminediately from the earlieit infancy, and the appointment of every one's diet, he left nothing of the very smallest consequence to be done at the pleasure and disposal of the person himselt: Accordingly he made a fixed rule of law what forts of food they should abstain from, and what forts they fhould make use of, as alfo what com. munion they should have with others; what great diligence they should use in their occupations, and what times of reft should be interposed; that, by living under that law as under a tather and a master, we miglit be guilty of no lin, neither voluntary nor out of ignorance; for he did not sufferihe guilt of ignorance to go on without punilhment, but demonstrated the law to be the best and the most necessary instruction of all other, permitting the people to leave off their other employments, and to aflembie together for the hearing of the law, and learning it exactly, and this not once or twice, or ottener, but every week ; which thing all the other legislators seem to have neglected.
19. And indeed, the greateft part of mankind are so far from living according to their own laws, that they hardly know them ; but when they have finned, they learn from others that they have transgressed the law. Those allo who are in the highest and principal posts of the government contess, they are not acquainted with those laws, and are obliged to take luch perlons for their alleflors in public adminiftrations, as profels to have skill in those laws: But for our people, if any body do but ask any one of them about our laws, he will more read. ily tell them all than he will tell his own name, and this in consequence of our having Icarned them immediately as love
as ever we became sensible of any thing, and of our having them as it were engraven on our loulo. Our transgressors of them are but few, and it is impossible, when any do offende to escape punishment.
20. And this very thing it is that principally creates such a wonderful agreement of minds amongst us all ; for this entire agreement of ours in all our notions concerning God, and our having no difference in our course of lite and tranners, procures among us the most excellent concord of these our manners that is any where among mankind : For no other people but we Jews have avoided all discourses about God that a. ny way contradict one another, which yet are frequent among other nations ; and this is true pot only among ordinary perTons, according as every one is affected, but some of the phi. losophers have been insolent enough to indulge such contra, dictions, while fome of them have undertaken to use such words as entirely take away the nature of God, as others of them have taken away his providence over mankind. Nor can any one perceive amongit us any difference in the conduct of our lives, but all our works are common to us all. We have one sort of discourle concerning God, which is conformable to our law, and affirms that he sees all things ; as also we have but one way of speaking concerning the conduct of our lives, that all other things ought to have piety for their end ; and this any body miay hear from our women, and servanrs themselves.
21. And indeed, hence hath arisen that accusation which some make against us, that we have not produced men that have been the inventors of new operations, or ot new ways of speaking; for others think it a fine thing to persevere in nothing that has been delivered down from their forefathers, and these teftily it to be an instance of the shai peit wisdom when thele men venture to transgress those traditions ; whereas we, on the contrary, suppote it to be our only wisdom and virtue to admit no actions nor supposals that are contrary to our o. riginal laws; which procedure of ours is a just and sure sign that our law is admirably constituted; for such laws as are not thus well made, are convicted upon trial to want amendment.
22. But while we are ourselves persuaded, that our law was made agreeably to the will of God, and it would be impious for us to observe the same ; for what is there in it that any bo. dy would change ? and what can be invented that is better? or what can we take out of other people's laws that will ex. ceed it? Perhaps some would have the entire settlement of our government altered. And where thall we find a better or more righreous conftitution than ours, while this makes us el. Leem God to be the governor of the universe, and permits the priests in general to be the administrators of the principal afe fairs, and withal intrufts the government over the other priests to the chief high priest himself : Which priests our legislator at their first appointment, did not advance to that dignity for their riches, or any abundance of other possessions, or any plenty they had, as the gifts of fortune ; but he intrusted the principal management of divine worship to those that exceed. ed orhers in an ability to persuade men, and in prudence of conduct. These men had the main care of the law and of the other parts of the people's conduét committed to them; for they were the priests who were ordained to be the fpe&lators of all, and the judges in doubtful cases, and the punishers of thole that were condemned to suffer punilhment.
23. What form of government then can be more holy than this ? what more worthy kind of worship can be paid to God than we pay, where the entire body of the people are prepared for religion, where an extraordinary degree of care is required in the priells, and where the whole polity is so ordered as if it were a certain religious solemnity ? For what things foreigners, when they folemnize such festivals, are not able to ob. serve for a few days time, and call them mysteries and sacred ceremonies, we observe with great pleasure and an unshaken resolution during our whole lives. What are the things then that we are commanded or forbidden ? They are simply and easily known. The first command is concerning God, and afhrms that God contains all things, and is a being every way perfect and happy, self-sufficient, and lupplying all other be. ings; the beginning, the middle and the end ol all things. He is manileit in his works and benefits, and more conspicu. ous than any other being whatsoever ; but as to his form and magnitude he is most obfcure. All materials, let them be ever do costly, are unworthy to compole an image for him, and all arts are unartful to express the notion we ought to have of him. We can neither see nor think of any thing like him, nor is it agreeable to piety to form a relemblance of him. We see his works, the ligbt, the heaven, the earth, the fun and the moos, the waters, thegenerations of animals, the productions of fruits. Thele things hath God made, not with hands, not with labor, nor as wanting the affilance of any to co-operate with him; but as his will resolved they should be made and be good allo, they were made, and became good immediately. All meu ought to foilow this being, and to worship hiin in the exercile of virtue; for this way of worship of God is the most boly of all others.
24. There ought also to be but One temple for One God; for likeness is the constant foundation of agreeinent. This temple ought to be common to all men, becaule he is the common God of all men. His priests are to be continually about his worship, over whom he that is the first by his birth is to be chcir ruler perpetually. His business must be to offer sacrifi. ces to God, together with those priests that are joined with him, to see that the laws be observed, to determine controver. Sies, and to punish those that are convicted of injustice; while he that does not submit to him ball be subject to the lamepune