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chain of our irregular affections at once.y 'touramendment cannot be secured without the grace of God, the prayers of good men the help of the brethren, and our own sincere repentance, and constant care. It is a good thing not to sin at all; it is also good, having sinned, to repent; as it is best to have health alway', but ji is a good thing to rec:iver from a dilemper. To God be glory and domimon forever and ever. Amen.

END OF THE WRITINGS OF JOSEPHUS.'

THREE DISSERTATIONS,

CONCERNING

Jesus CHRIST, John the BapTIST, JAMES THE JUST,

AND God's COMMAND TO ABRAHAM, &c. &c.

DISSERTATION İ.

The TESTIMONIES of JOSEPHUS concerning Jesus CHRIST, JOHN

the Baptist, and JAMės the Just, vindicated, INCE we meet with several important testimonies in Josephus, the

Jewish historian concerning John the Baptist, the forerunner of Jesus of Nazareth, concerning Jesus of Nazareth himníelf, and concerning JAMES the Just, the brother of Jesus of Nazareth ; and since the principal testimony, which is that concerning of Jesus of Nazareth him. Self, hasot late been greatly questioned by many, and rejected by some of the learned as fpurious, it will be fit for me, who have ever declared my firm belief that these testimonies were genuine, to let down fairly some of the original evidence, and citations, I have met with in the first fiften centuries concerning them, and then to make proper observations upon that evidence, for the reader's more complete satisfaction

But before I produce the citations themselves out of Josephus, give me leave to prepare the reader's attention, by serting down the senti. ments or perhaps the most learned person, and the most competent judge that ever was, as to the authority of Josephus, I mean of Joseph Scaliger in the Prolegomena to his book De Emendatione Temporum, p. 17. “ Josephus is the most diligent and the greatest lover of truth of all writers ; nor are we afraid to affirm of him, that it is more safe to believe him, not only as to the affairs of the Jews, but also as to those that are foreign to them, than all the Greek and Latin writers, and this, because his fidelity and his compass of learning are every where conspicuous." The ancient CITATIONS of the TESTIMONIES of JOSEPHUS,

from his own time fill the end of the fifieenih century. About A.D. 110. Tacit. Annal. lib. xv.cap. 44-NERO, in order to stifle the rumor, [as if he himself had set Rome on fire] ascribed it to those people who were hated for their wicked practices, and called by the vulgar, Christians : these he punished exquisitely. The author of his name was Christ, who, in the reign of Ziberius, was brought to puiimen: by Pontius Pilate the procuratori

About A. D. 147. Juft. Mart. Dialog. cum Trypho. p. 230-You Wews) knew that Jesus was risen from the dead, and ascended into heaven, as the prophecies did foretel was to happen.

About A. D. 230. Origen. Comment. in Marib. p. 234.-This James was of fo thining a character among the people, on account of his righteousness, that Flavius Josephus, when, in his twentieth book ct 1b VOL. III.

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Jewith antiquities, he had a mind to let down what was the cause why the people suffered such miseries till the very holy house was demolithed, he said, that these things befel them by the anger of God, on ac. count of what thy had dared to do to James the brother of Jesus, who was called Cbrift: And wonderful it is that while he did not receive Tefus für Christ, he did nevertheless bear witness that James was so righteous a man. tic says farther, that the people thougiit that they futtered these things for the sake of Jaines.

About #. D. 260. Contr. Cel. lib. i. 35, 36.- I would-fay to Celsus, who personates a Jew, that adinitied of John the Baptist, and how he baptized Jesus, that one who lived but a litle while, after John and Jefus, wrote, how that Joha was a baptizer unto he remillion of fins: For Jofephus testifies in the eighteenth book of Jewish antiquities, that John was the Baptist, and that he promised purification to those that were baptized. “Die fue Josephus also, although he did not believe in Jesus as Christ, when he was enquiring after the cause of the defiruction of Jerusalem, and of the demolition of the temple, and ought to have said, that their inachinations against jesus were the cause of those miseries coming on the people, because they had tain that Chrift, who was foretold by the prophets, he, though as it were unwillingly, and yet as one not reinote from the truth, says, “Thele iniseries befel the Jews by way of revenge for James the just, who was the brother ot Jesus, that was called Chrisi, because thy had llain him who was a molt righteous person,'' Now this James was he whom that genuine disciple of Jelus, Paul, fiid he had ieco as ibe Lord's broiber; [Gal.i. 19.] which relation implies not so much nearness of blood, or the sameners of education, as it does the agreement of manners and preaching. If therefore he says the defolation of Jerusalem befel the Jews for the sake of James, with how much greater reason inight he have said, that it happened for the sake of Jesus ? &c.

About A. D. 324. Eufeb. Demonstr.. Evan. lib. iii. p. 124.--Certainly the attestation of those I have already produced concerning our Sav. jour may be íutacient. However, it may not be amiss if, over and above, we make use of Josephus the Jew for a farther witness ; who, in the eighteenth book of his antiquities, when he was writing the history of what happened under Pilate, makes mention of our Saviour in these words: “ Now there was about this time, Jesus, a wile inan, if it be law. sul to call him a man, for he was a duer of wonderful works, a teachcr of such men as had a veneration for truth ; hie drew over to him both many of the Jews, and many of the Genuiles: He was the Chrift. And when Pilate, at the fuggestion of the principal men among us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at fuit did not for. fake him, for he appeared into then alive again the third day, as the divine prophets had spoken of ihese, and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him ; whence the tribe of Christians, so named froin him, are not extinct at this day.” If therefore we have this historian's tcftiniony, that he not only brought over to himself the twelve apostles with the leventy difciples, but many of he Jews, and many of the Gentiles also, he must manifeftly have liad somewhat in him extraordinary above the rest of mankind; for bow otherwile could he draw over so many of the Jews, and of the Gentiles, unleís he performed admirable and amazing works, and used a method of teaching that was nct common? Moreover, die scripture of the Acts of the Apoftles bears witness, that there were many ten thousands of Jews, who were perfuaded, that he was the Christ of God, who was foretold by the prophets [Acts xxi. 20.]

Åbout A. D 330. Hift. Ecclef. lib. i. cap 11.-Now the divine seriature fthe gospels makes mention of John the Baptist, as having his head cut off by the younger lierod. Josephus also concurs in this history, ind makes mention of Herodias by raine, as the wife of his brother, whom Herod had married, upon divorcing his foriner lawful wife. She was the daughter of Aretas, king of the Petrean Arabians; and which Herodias he had parted from her husband while he was alivered On which account also, when he had slain John, he made war with Aretas, [Aretas made war with him] because his daughter had been used dishonorably : In which war, when it came to a battle, he lays, that all Herod's army was destroyed, and that lie fuffered this because of his wicked contrivance against Tohi. Morcover the same Josephus, by ac knowledging John to have been a moft righteous man, and the Baptist, confpires in his teftimony with what is yritten in the gospels. He also relates, that Herod lost his kingdoin for the sake of the fame Herodias, together with whom he was biinself condemned to be banimed to Viend na, a city of Gaul And this is liis account in the eighteenth book of the antiquities, where he writes this 'of John verharim : * Some of the Jews thought that the destruction of Herod's army came from God, and that very justly, as a punishment for what he did against John that was called the Baptist, for Herod flew him, who was a good man, and one that coinnianded the Jews to exercise virtue, both as to righteouse nels towards one another, and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism. for that by this means the walhing (with water) would apa pear acceptable to him, when they made use of it, not in order to the putting away (or the remiflion of some lins [only] but for the purification of the body, fuppofing still that the fou were thoroughls purified beforehand by righteousness * Now when [many] others came in crowds abont hin, for they were greatly delighted in hearing his words, Herod was afraid that this to great power of perfuading men might tend to some fedition or other, for they feenied to be dila: posed to do every thing he should advise them to, so he supposed it better to prevent any attempt for a mutation from him, by cutting him off, that after such mutation should be brought about, and the public inould suffer, to repent [of such negligence.] Accordingly he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod's suspicious temper, to Machierus, the castle I before mentioned, and was there put to death -Wlien Jose phus had said this of Jolm, he makes mention also of our Saviourin the fame history, after this manner: "Now there was about this time, one Jefus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with plcasure; he drew over to him both many of the Jews, and many of the Gentiles : also he was the Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal menamong us, had condemned him to the cross, thofe that loved him at the first, did not forsake him, for he appeared to them alive again the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold, these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. And still the tribe of Christians, fo named from him, are not extinct at this day." And lince this writer, fprung from the Hebrews themselves, hath delivered these things above in his own work, concerning John the Baptist and our Saviour, what room is there for any farther evasion ? &c.

Now James was so wonderful a person, and was to celebrated by alt others for righteousness, that the judicious. Jews thought this to have been that occasion of that liege of Jerusalem, which came on presently after his martyrdom, and that it befel them for no other reason, than that impionis fact they were guilty of against hint Josephus therefore did not refuse to attest thereto in writing by the words following : si 'These mileries befcl the Jews by way of revenge for James the Just, who was the brother of Jefus that was called Christ, on this account that they had llain him who was a most righteous perfon.”

The same Josephus declares the manner of his death in the twentieth book of the antiquities, in these words : " Cerar sent Albinus into Judea to be procurator, *hen he had heard that Ferris was dead. Now Ananus junior, who, as we raid had been admitted to the lrighpriest! ood, was in his temper boid and daring in an extraordinary manner. He was also of the sect of the Sadducees, who are more favage in judgment than the other Jews, as we have already signified. Since therefore this was the character of Ananus, he thought he had now a proper opportunity (to exercise his authority) because Festus was dead and Albinus was but upon the road; so he assembles the fanhedrin of judges, and brings before them James, the brother of Je(us who was called Chrif, and some others (of his companions) and when he had formed an accusation against them, as breakers of the law, be delivered them to be stoned : But as for those who seemed the mofi equitable of the citizens, and those who were the most uneasy at the breach of the lans, they dilliked what was done. They also sent to the King [Agrippa) defiring him to send to Ananus that he should act lo no more for that what he had already done could not be justifiedt," &c.

About A. D. 360. Ambrose or Hegessippus de Excid. Urb. Hierofolym. lib. i. cap. 12.-We have discovered that it was the opinion and belief of the Jews, as Josephus affirins, [ho is an author noi to be rejected, when he writes against himself), that Herod loft his army, not by the deceit of men but by the apier of God, and that justly, as an effect of revenge for what he did to John the Baptist, a juft man, who had said to him, It is not lawful for thee 10 have thy brother's wife.

:he Jells themselves also bear witness to Christ, as appears by Jofephus, the writer of their history, who says thus : That there was at that time a ise man, if, says he, it be lawful to have himn called a man, a doer of wonderful works who appeared to his disciples after the third day from his dea h, alive again, according to the writings of the prophets, who foretold these and innumerable other miraculous events concerning him ; from whom began the congregation of Christians, and hath penetrated among all sorts of men, nor does there remain any nation in the Roman world, which continues strangers to his religion. If the Jews do not believe us, let them at least believe their own writers. Josephus, whom they esteem a great man, hath said this, and yet hath he spoken truth after such a manner, and so far was his mind wandered from the right way, that even he was not a believer, as to what he hir: self said ; but thus he spake in order to deliver historical truth, because he thought it not lawful for him to deceive. while he was no believer, because of the hardness of his heart and his perfidious intention. However it as no prejudice to the truth that he was not a believer but this adds more weight to his testimony, that while he was ar unbeliever, and unwilling this should be true, he has not denied it to be so.

About A D. 400. Hieronym. de Vir. Illujir in Josepho.- Josephus, in the eighteenth book of antiquities, most expressly acknowledges that Christ was llain by the Pharisees, on account of the greatnels of his miracles; and that John the Baptist was truly a prophet; and that Jeru. falem was deinolithed on account of the daughter of James the apoftle. Now he wrote concerning our Lord after this nanner: * At the same time there was Jesus, a wise man, it yet it be law ful to call him a man. for he was a doer of v onderful works, a teacher of those who will. ingly receive the truth. He had many followers both of the Jews and of the Gentiles : He was believed to be Christ. And when by the envy of our principal men. Pilate nad condemned him to the cross, this, notwithlianding those who had loved him at first, persevered, for lie appeared to them alive on the third day, as the oracles of the proplicts had foretold many of these and other wonderful things concerned him: And the seat of Christians fonamed from him, are not extinct at this day"

About A D. 410. Ifidorus Pelufiota the scholar of Chryfoftom, lib. iv. sool 2*5--There was one Josephus, a Jew of the greatelt reputation, and one that has ztalous of the law ; one also that paraphrased the Old

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