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have they burat in the fire to their gods. See chap. xvüí. 10...2 Kings xvii. 17. *16* And Ahaz made his son to pass through the fire, according to the abomination of the heathen, whom the Lord cast out before the children of Ifracl."

" + Moreover Ahaz burnt incense in the valley of the son of Hinnom, and burnt his children Chis son in Josephus) in the fire, after the abominations of the heathen, whom the Lord cast out before the child. ren cf lírael."

" I And the Sepharites bairnt their children in the fire to Adranmelec... and Anammelech, the gods of Sepharvaim," &c.

"|| And Joliah defilea Toplieth, which is in the valley of the children of Hinnom that no man might make his son or his daughter to pass through the fire unto Moloch.”

Yea he sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto de. inons; and shed innocent blood, the blood of their lons and of their daughiers. whom they facriced into the idols of Canaan, and the land was polluted with blood. See Ifa. lvii. 5"

“ The children of Judah hath done evil in my fight, faith the Lord; they have let their abominations in the house which is called by my name to pollute it And they have built the high places of To. pheth which is in the valley of the fo! of Hinnom, to burn their fons and their daughters in the fire, which I commanded them not, neither came it into my heart."

"*** Thus faith the Lord of Hosts, the God of Israel, Behold I will bring evil upon this place, the which whosoever heareth his ears thall tingle, because thou hast foríaken me, and have estranged this place, and have burnt incense uinto other gods, whom neither they nor their fathers have known, nor the kings of 'udah, and have filled this place with the blood of innocents. "I hey have built also the high places of Baal, to burn their sons with fire for burnt offerings unto Baal, which I commanded not, nor spake it, neither came it into iny mind," &c. *"++ They built the high places of Baal, which are in the valley of the son of Hinnom, to cause their sons and their daughters to pass through the fire unto Moloch, which I commanded them not, neither came it into my mind that they should do this abomination, to cause Judah to sin."

"11 Moreover thou hast taken thy sons and thy daughters, whom thou hast borne unto me, and these halt thou facrificed unto them to be devoured. Is this of thy whoredoms a small matter, that thou hart Nain my children, and delivered them to cause them to pass through the fire for them ?). See chap. xx. 26... Cor. v. 20.

“ | Thou hatest the old inhabitants of thy holy land, for doing most odious works of witchcraft, and wicked sacrifices; and also those merciless murderers of children, and devourers of man's Aeth, and feasts of blood, with their prieits, out of the midst of their idolatrous crew, and the parents that killed with their own hands souls destitute of help."

6. That Almighty God never permitted, in any one instance, that such a human facrifice should actually be offered to himself (though he had a right to have required it, if he had so pleased) under the whole Jewish diwensation, which yet was full of many other kinds of sacri. fices, and this at a time when mankind generally thought such facrifices of the greatest virtue for the procuring pardon of lin, and the di.

* 2 Kings xv. 3.- t 2 Chron, xxvili 3.- 2 Kings xvii. 31.-12 Kings xxiii. 10.-mons Plal. xvi. 37, 38.-- Jer vii. 30, 31, 32. —-** }ar. xix. 3, 4, 5,- *t Jer. xxxii, 85 - # Wild. xii. 4, 5, 9. — Ezek Avi, 20, 21.

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* Ap. Marsh. p.-26, 77.-- + 2 Kings iii. 27.- Micah vi. 6–8.Gen. xxii. 11-13.- Judg, xi. 36–39.-- Antiq. B. V. 7–10.

com ** Antiq. B. I. chap. ii. - ft Ul. Annal. ad A. . 2133.

have they burnt in the fire to their gods. See chap. xvii. 10...Kings xvii, 17"

"* And A haz made his son to pass through the fire, according to the abomination of the heathen, whom the Lord cast out before the children of Ifrael."

on + Moreover Ahaz burnt incense in the valley of the son of Hinnom, and burnt his children this son in Jofephus) in the fire, after the abominations of the heathen, whom the Lord cast out before the child. ren cf líra-l."

" And the Sepharites bairnt their children in the fire to Adran. melec.. and Anaumelech the gods of Sepharvaim," &c.

" || And Jotian defilea Topheth, which is in the valley of the children of Hinnom that no man.might make his fou or his daughter to pass through the fire unto Moloch."

Yea he sacrificed their foris and their daughters unto dæinons; and thed innocent blood, the blood of their lons and of their daughiers. whom they facri ced unto the idols of Canaan, and the land was polluted with blood. See Ifa. Ivii. 5"

"q The children of Judah hath done evil in my light, faith the Lord"; they have let their abominations in the house which is called by my name to pollute it And they have built the high places of To. pheth which is in the valley of the son of Hinnom, to burn their fons and their daughters in the fire, which I commanded them not, neither came it into my heart."

"* ** Thus faith the Lord of Hofts, the God of Israel, Behold I will bring evil upon this place, the which whosoever heareth his ears thall tingle, because thou haft foríaken me, and have estranged this place, and have burnt incense unto other gods, whom neither they nor their fathers have known, nor the kings of 'udali, and have filled this place with the blood of innocents. They have built also the high places of Baal, to burn their sons with fire for burnt offerings unto Baal, which I commanded not, nor spake it, neither came it into iny mind," &c.

“++ They built the high places of Baal, which are in the valley of the son of Hinnom, to cause their fons and their daughters to pass through the fire unto Moloch, which I commanded them not, neither came it into my mind that they thould do this abomination, to caule Judah to fin."

“It Moreover thou hast taken thy sons and thy daughters, whom thou hast borne unto me, and there halt thou sacrificed unto them to be devoured. Is this of thy whoredoms a small matter, that thou haft Nain my children, and delivered them to, cause them to pass through the fire for them ?" See chap. XX. 26.... Cor. v. 20.

“ Thou hateft the old inhabitants of thy holy land, for doing most odious works of witchcraft, and wicked sacrifices; and also those merciless murderers of children, and devourers of man's feth, and feasts of blood, with their prielis, out of the midst of their idolatrous crew, and the parents that killed with their own hands souls deftitute of help."

6. 1 hat Almighty God never permitted, in any one instance, that such a luman facrifice should actually be offered to himself (though he had a right to have required it, if he had so pleased) under the whole Jewish dispensation, which yet was full of many other kinds of lacrifices, and this at a time when mankind generally thought such facrifices of the greatest virtue for the procuring pardon of lin, and the di

* 2 Kings xv. 3.- t 2 Chron. xxvji 3.- I 2 Kings xvii, 31. Kings xxiii. 10 . Plal. xvi. 37. 38.----- Jer vii. 30, 31, 39. _ xix. 3, 4,

5 t Jer. xxxii. 25- * Wild. xii. 4, 5, 9. Avi, 20, 21.

'* jer Ezek

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vine favor. This the ancient records of the heathen world atteft. Take their notion in the words of Philo By bijus, the translator of Sanchoniatho : *" It was the custom of the ancients, in the greatest calamities and danger, for the governors of the city or nation, in order to avert the destruction of all, to devote their beloved fon to be slain, as a price of redemption to the punishing (or avenging] dæmons : And those so devoted were killed after a mystical manner” This the history of the king of Moab,t when he was in great distress in his war against Ifrael and Judah, informs us of; who “then took his eldeft fon, that should have reigned in his stead, and offered him for a burnt offering upon the city wall.” Tl: 3 also the Jewish prophet Micaht implies, when he enquires, "Wherewith shall I come before the Lord, and bow myself before the High God? Shall I come before him with burnt offerings, with calves of a year old ? Will the Lord be pleafed with thousands of rams, with ten thousands of fat kids of the goats? Shall I give my first born for my transgression, the fruit of my body for the lin of my soul ?" No certainly, « For he hath fhewed thee, O man, what is good; and what doth the Lord require of thee, but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to humble thyself to walk with thy God"

It is true God did here try the faith and obedience of Abraham to himself, whether they were as strong as the Pagans exhibited to their dæmons or idols, yet did he withal take effectual care, and that by a miraculous interposition also, to prevent the execution, and provided himfelf a ram, as a vicarious fubftitute, to supply the place of Isaac immediately : || "And the angel of the Lord called unto Abraham, and said, Abraham, Abraham ; and he said, Here am I: And he faid, Lay not thine hand upon the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him ; for now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou haft not withheld thy fon, thine only son, from me. And Abraham lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold a ram caught in a thicket by his horns; and Abraham went and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt offering in the stead of his fon.” Thus though Jeptha has, by many, been thought to have vowed to offer up his only danghter and child for a facrifice, and that as bound on him, upon suppolition of his vow, by a divine law, Levit. xxvii. 28, 29, of which opinion I was once myself, yet upon more mature consideration I have, for some time, thought this to be a miltake, and that his vow extended only to her being devoted to serve God at the tabernacle, or elsewhere, in a state of perpetual virginity; and that neither that law did enjoin any human facrifices, nor do we meet with any example of its execution in this sense afterwards. Philo never mentions any such law, no more than Josephus: And when Josephus thought that Jeptha had made such a vow, and executed it, he is so far from hinting at its being done in compliance with any law of God, that he expressly condemns him for it, as having acted contrary thereto ; or, in his own words, . "as having offered an obligation neither conformable to the law, nor acceptable to God, nor weighing with himself what opinion the hearers would have of such a practice. 0 7. That Isaac being at this time, according to Jofephus,** who is herein juftly followed by Arehb. Umer, t+ no less than twentyfive years of age, and Abraham being by consequence, one hundred and twenfy five, it is not to be fupposed that Abraham could bind Ifaac, in order to offer him in facrifice, but by his own free consent; which free confent of the party who is to suffer feems absolutely necellary in all such cafes ; and which free consent St. Clement, as well as Jofephus, dil

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+ Ap. Marsh. p-56, 77.- t 2 Kings iii. 27. Micah vi. 6–8.Gen. xxii. 11-13.- Judg. xi. 36–39. Antiq. B. V. 7-10.** Antiq. B. I. chap. ii. it Ul. Annal. ad A. 11. 2133.

tinctly takes notice of on this occasion, St Clement describes it thus:

" Isaac being fully persuaded of what he knew was to come, cheer. fully yielded himself up for a sacrifice.” And for Jofephus, t after in. troducing Abraham in a pathetic speech, laying before Isaac the di. vine command, and exhorting him patiently and joyfully to submit to it, he tells us, that Ifaac very cheerfully consented ;” and then introduces him in a short, but very pious answer, acquiefcing in the propofal; and adds, that “ he then immediately and readily went to the altar to be sacrificed.” Nor did Jepthat perform his rash vow, whatever it were, till his daughter had given her consent to it.

8. It appears to me that Abral::m never despaired entirely of the interposition of Providence for the preservation of Ifaac, although in obe. dience to the command he prepared to sacrifice him to God. This seems to me intimated in Abraham's words to his servants, on the third day, when he was in sight of the mountain on which he was to offer his son Isaac, “We will go and worthip, and we will come again to you.” As also in his answer to his lon, when he inquired, “Behold the fire and the wood, but where is the lamb for a burnt offering? And Abraham faid, My fon, God will provide himself a lamb for a burnt offering." Both these pallages look to me somewhat like such an ex. pectation. However,

9. It appears most evident, that Abraham, and I suppose Ifaac also firmly believed, that if God should permit Isaac to be actually flain as a facrifice, he would certainly and speedily raise him again from the dead. This, to be sure, is supposed in the words already quoted, that both he and his son would go and worship, and come again to the fer. vants ;" and is clearly and justiy collected from this history by the author to the Hebrews, chapter xi. 17, 18, 19. “By faith Abrahan when he was tried offered up Isaac, and he that had received the prom. ises offered up his only begotten, of whom it was said, that in Isaac thall thy feed be called, accorinting, or reasoning, that God was able to raise him from the dead." And this reasoning was at once very obvi. ous, and wholly undeniable, that lince God was truth itself, and had over and over promised that he would|l “multiply Abraham exceed ingly ; that he should be a father of many nations; that his name thould be no longer Abram but Abraham, because a father of many nations God had inade him, &c. that Sarai his wife thould be called Sarah ; that he would bless her, and give Abraham a son also of her ; and that he would bless him, and the should become nations, and kings of people thould be of her, &c. and that in Isaac should his feed be called.” And since withal it is here supposed, that Ifaac was to be fain as a facrifice, before he was married, or had any feed, God was, for certain, obliged by his promises, in these circumstances, to raise Isaac again from the dead : And this was an eminent instance of that faith whereby** “ Abraham believed God, and it was imputed to him for righteousness," viz. that if God should permit Isaac to be facrificed, he would certainly and quickly raise him up again from the dead, it “ from whence also he received him in a figure," as the author to the Hebrews here justly observes.

10. That the firin and just foundation of Abraham's faith and alur. ance in God for such a resurrection, was this, belides the general confideration of the divine veracity, that during the whole time of his fojourning in ftrange countries, in Canaan and Egypt, ever since he had been called out of Chaldea or Mesopotamia at seventy five years of age, he hadys had confiant experience of a special, of an overruling, of a

* Clem. sect. 3. + Antiq. B.1. chap.xii. sect. 3.--- Judg. xi. 36, 372 Gen, xxii. 5, 7.- Gen. xvii. 2, 4, 5, 6, 16.- IGen. xxt. 12. — ** Gen. xv. 6.-- + Heb, xi, 19. Gen. xii. 4.

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