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as he was in a rage at his disappointment, he llew all the Jews whom he met with, without sparing those that were for Herod, but using them all as if they were for Antigonus.

7. Hereupon Herod was very angry at him, and was going to fight against Macheras as his enemy ; but he restrained his Indignation, and marched to Antony to accuse Macheras of mal-adminiftration. But Macheras was made senGble of his offences, and followed after the king iminediately, and earnestly begged and obtained that he would be reconciled to him. However, Herod did not defift from his resolution of going tu Antony ; bug when he heard that he was besieging * Samofata with a great army, which is a strong city near to Euphrates, he made the greater hatte ; as observing that this was a proper opportunity for Thewing at once his courage, and for doing what would greatly oblige Antony. Indeed when he came, he loon made an end of that fiege, and flew a great number of the barbarians, and took froin them a large prey ; intomuch that Antony, who admired his courage formerly, did now admire it still more. Accordingly he heaped many more honours upon him, and gave him more assured hopes that he should gain his kingdom : And now king Antiochus was forced to deliver up Samolata,


The Death of Joseph, [ Herod's brother], which had been hgni,

fied to Herod in dreams. How Herod was preserved twice, after a wonderful manner. He cuts of the head of Pappus, who was the Murderer of his brother, and sends that head to (his other brother Pherora's. And in no long time he beheg

es Jerusalem, and marries Mariamne. $1. IN the mean time Herod's affairs in Judea were in an ill

I state. He had left his brother Joleph with full power, but had charged him to make no attempts against Antigo. nus, till his return; for that Macheras would not be luch an assistant as he could depend on, as it appeared by what he had done already ; but as soon as Josephus heard that his brother was at a very great distance, he neglected the charge he had received, and marched towards Jericho with five cohorts, which Macheras sent with him. This movement was intend. ed for seizing on the corn, as it was now in the midst of summer; but when his enemies atracked him in the mountains, and in places which were difficult to pass, he was both killed himself, as he was very bravely fighting in the battle, and the

• This Samosata, the metropolis of Commagena, is well known from its coins, as Spanheim here assures us, Dean Aldrich also confirms what Josephus here notes, that Herod was a great means of taking the city by Antóny, and that from Plutarch and Dio.

entire Roman cohorts were destroyed; for these cohorts were new-raised men, gathered out of Syrta, and there was no mixture of those called veteran soldiers among them, who might have supported those that were unskilful in war.

2. This victory was not sufficient for Antigonus, but he proceeded to chat degree of rage, as to treat the dead body of Joseph barbaroufly : For when he had gotten possession of the bodies of those that were slain, he cut off his head, although his brother Pheroras would have given fifty talents as a price of redemption for it. And now the affairs of Galilee were put into fuch disorder after this victory of Antigonus's that those of Antigonus's party brought the principal men that were on Herod's side to the lake, and there drowned them. There was a great change made also in Idumea, where Macheras was building a wall about one of the fortresses, which was called Gittha. But Herod had not yet been informed of these things; før alter the taking of Samosata, and when Antony had set Sofius over the affairs of Syria, and given him orders to afa filt Herod against Antigonus, he departed into Egypt; but Solius sent two legions before him into Judea, to aslift Herod, and followed himself soon after with the rest of his army.

3. Now when Herod was at Daphne, by Antioch, he had foine dreams which clearly foreboded his brother's death, and as he leaped out of his bed in a disturbed manner, there came messengers that acquainted him with that calamity. So when he had lamented this misfortune for a while, he put off the main part of his mourning, and made haste to march against his enemies ; and when he had performed a march that was above his strength, and was gone as tar as Libanus, he got him eight hundred men of those that lived near to that mountain, as his affiftants, and joined with them one Roman legion, with which, before it was day, he made an irruption into Galilee, and met his enemies, and drove them back to the place which they had left. He also made an immediate and continual attack upon the fortress. Yet was he forced by a moft terrible storm to pitch his camp in the neighbouring villages, before he could take it ; but when, after a few days time, the lecond legion, that came from Antony joined themselves to him, the enemy were affrighted at his power, and left their fortifications in ihe night time.

4. After this he marched through Jericho, as making what haite he could to be avenged on his brother's murderers : Where happened to him a providential fign, out of which, when he had unexpectedly escaped, he had the reputation of being very dear to God; for that evening there feafted with him many of the principal men, and after that feaft was over, and all the guests were gone out, the house fell down immediately. And as he judged this to be a common signal of what dangers he lhould undergo, and how he thould escape then in tbe war that he was going about, he, in the morning, fet for

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ne people, nobody could be persuaded to withhold Tehind from laughter, but they new people of all a. no imen. Then it was that Antigonus, without any

bis tormer or to his prelent fortune, came down adel and fell down at Sosius's, feet who, without

at all, upon the change of his condition, laughed ond measure, and called him Antigona *. Yet did i him like a woman, or let him go free, but put him . and kept him in custody. Ierod's concern at present, now he had gotten his der his power, was to restrain the zeal of his foreign ; for the multitude of the strange people were very e the temple, and what was íacred in the holy house the king endeavoured to restrain them, partly by ations, partly by his threatenings. nay, partly by unking the victory worse than a defeat to him if that ought not to be seen were seen by them. He .e, at the same time the spoiling of the city, asking he most earnest manner, whether the Romans by *ing the city of money and men had a mind to leave sa desert; and told him. That" he judged the do. he habitable earth too small a compensation for the f so many citizens.” And when Sofius laid, " Thac ult to allow the soldiers this plunder as a reward jey suffered during the siege," Herod made answer, vould give every one of the soldiers a reward out of oney," So he purchased the deliverance of his ind performed his promiles to them, and made piel. a magnificent manner to each foldier, and propor

their commanders, and with a most royal bounty himselt, whereby nobody went away but in a weal. tion. Hereupon Solius dedicated a crown of gold ad ihen went away fro:n Jerusalem, leading Antigoin bonds to Antony ; then did the tas bring him to who still had a fond delire of life, and some frigid

to the last, but by his cowardly behaviour well de. dic by it. upon king Herod diftinguished the multitude that

city, and for those that were of his fide, he made nore his friends by the honours he conferred on Tor those of Antigonus's party he few them; and y ran low, he turned all the ornaments he had in. und sent it to Antony, and co those about him. Yet thereby purchase an exemption from all suffer.

tony was now bewitched by his love to Cleopa. entirely conquered by her charms. Now Cleo

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* That is, A woman, not a man,
* Antigonus is confirmed by Plutarch and Strabo ; the latter
ir it by Josephus himself, Autiz. B. XV. ch. i. (c&t. 2. V
Scre observes,

ward with his army, when about fix thousand of his enemies came runniąg down from the mountains, and began to fighi with those in his forefront ; yet durft they not be lo very bold as to engage the Romans hand to hand, but threw stones and darts at them at a distance ; by which means they wounded a considerable number; in which action Herod's own side was wounded with a dart.

5. Now as Antigonus had a mind to appear to exceed Her. od, not only in the courage, but in the number of his men, he ient Pappus, one of his companions with an army against Sa. maria, whose fortune it was to oppose Macheras ; but Herod over-rán the enemies country, and demolished five little cit, ies, and destroyed two thousand men that were in them, and burned their houses, and then returned to his camp ; but his head quarters were at the village called Caria.

6. Now a great multitude of Jews resorted to him every day, both out of Jericho, and the other parts of the country. Some were moved so to do out of their hatred to Antigonus, and some out of regard to the glorious actions Herod had done ; but others were led on by an unreasonable desire of change ; so he fell upon them immediately. As for Pappus and his party, they were not terrified either at their number, or at their zeal but marched out with great alacrity to fight ihem, and it came to a close fight. Now other parts of their army made resistance for a while ; but Herod running the ut. moft hazard out of the rage he was in at the murder of his brother, that he might be avenged on those that had been the authors of it, soon beat those that opposed him, and, after he had beaten them, he always turned his force against those that food to it still, and pursued them all; so that a great flaugh. ter was made, while some were forced back into that village whence they came out; he also presfed hard upon the hinder. most, and flew a vast number of them ; he also fell into the village with the enemy, where every house was filled with armed men, and the upper rooms were crowded above with soldiers for their defence; and when he had beaten those that were on the outside, he pulled the houles to pieces and plucked out those that were within ; upon many he had the roofs fhaken down, whereby they perished by beaps, and as "for those that fled out of the ruins, the soldiers received them with their swords in their hands, and the multitude of those slain, and lying on heaps was so great thatthe conquerors could not pass along the roads. Now the enemy could not bear this blow, so that when the multitude of them which was gathered together, faw that those in the village were flain, they difpers. ed themselves and fled away ; upon the confidence of which victory, Herod had marched immediately to Jerusalem, unlefs he had been hindered by the depth of winter's (coming on. This was the impediment that lay in the way of this his entire glorious progress, and was what hiodered Antigonus from be.

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