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ing now conquered, who was already disposed to forsake the city.

9. Now when at the evening Herod had already dismissed his triends to refresh themselves alter their fatigue, and when he was gone himself, while he was still hot in his armour, like a common soldier to bathe himself, and had but one servant that attended him, and before he was gotten into the bath, one of the enemies met him in the face with a sword in his hand, and then a second, and then a third and after that more of them; these were men who had run away out of the batle in to the bath in their armour, and they had lain there for lome time in great terror, and in privacy, and when they saw the king, they trembled for fear, and ran by him in a fright, al. though he were naked, and endeavoured to get off into the public road ; now there was by chance nobody else at hand that might seize upon these men, and for Herod, he was con. tented to have come to no harm himself, so that they all got a. way in safety.

8. But on the next day Herod had Pappus's head cut off, who was the general for Antigonus, and was sain in the bata tle, and sent it to his brother Pheroras, by way of punishment for their lain brother, for he was the man that New Joseph. Now as winter was going off Herod marched to Jerulalem, and brought his army to the wall of it ; this was the third year since he had been made king at Rrme; so he pitched his canıp before the temple, for on that side it might be besieged, and there it was that Pompey took the city. So he paried the work among the army, and demolished the luburbs, and raised three bani s, and gave orders to have towers built upon those banks, and left the most laborious of his acquaintance at the works. But he went himself to Samaria, to take the daugh.

ter of Alexander, the son of Ariftobulus to wite, who had been · betrothed to him betore, as we have already said ; and thus he

accomplished this by the by, during the siege of the city, for He had his enemy in great contempt already.

. When he had thus married Mariamne, he came back to Jerusalem with a greater army ; Sofius also joined him with a large army, bosh ol horsemen and footmen, which he sent before him ihrough the midland parts, wire he marched him. felt along Phenicia; and when the whole army was gotten together, which were eleven regiments of fooimen, and fix thouLand horlemen, besides the Syrian auxiliaries, which was no {mail part of the army, they pitched their camp near to the north wall. Herod's dependance was upon the decree of the senate, by which he was made king, and Sosius relied upon Antony, who lent the arniy that was under himn to Herod's asIstance.

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CHA P. XVIII. How Herod and Sosius took Jerusalem by force; and what Death Antigonus came to. Allo concerning Cleopatra's ava

ricious Temper. $. N OW the multitude of the Jews that were in the city

I were divided into several factions ; for the people that crowded about the temple, being the weaker part of them, gave it out, that as the times were, he was the happieft and moft religious man who should die first. But as to the more bold and hardy men, they got together in bodies, and fell a robbing others after various inanners, and these particularly plundered the places that were about the city, and this becaule there was no food left either for the horses or the men; yet some of the warlike men who were used to fight regularly, were appointed to defend the city during the fiege, and there drove those that raised the banks away from the wall, and these were alwaysinventing one engine or another to be a'n hindrance to the engines of the enemy, nor had they so much fuccess any way as in the mines underground.

2. Now, as for the robberies which were committed, the king contrived that ambushes should be so laid, that they might Teftrain their excursions ; and as for the want of provisions, he provided that they Thould be brought to them from great dis. tances. He was also too hard for the Jews, by the Romans skill in the art of war ; although they were bold to the utmost degree, now they durit not come to a plain baule with the Ro. inans, which was certain death, but through their mines un. derground they would appear in the midst of them on the sudden, and before they could batter down one wall, they built them another in its head ; and to lum up all at once, they did not thew any want either of pains taking, or of contrivances, as having resolved to hold out to the very last. Indeed though they had to great an army lying round about them, they bore a siege of five months, till some of Heroi's cholen men ven. tured to get upon the wall, and fell into the city, as did sofrus's centurions after them ; and now they first of all seized upon what was about the temple, and upon the pouring in of the army, there was slaughter of vaft multitudes every where, by reason of the rage the Romans were in at the lengih of this fiege, and by realon that the Jews who were about Herod earnestly endeavoured that none ol their adversaries might remain; fo they were cut to pieces by great multitudes, as they were crowded together in narrow streets, and in houses, or were running away to the temple; nor was there any mercy thewed, either to infants, or to the aged, or to the weaker sex ; infoinuch, that although the king lent about and desired them

to spare the people, nobody could be persuaded to withhold their right hand from slaughter, but they flew people of all a. ges like madmen. Then it was that Antigonus, without any regard to his tormer or to his present fortune, came down from the citadel and fell down at Sosius's, feet who, without pirying him at all, upon the change of his condition, laughed at him beyond measure, and called him Antigona *. Yet did he not treat him like a woman, or let him go free, but put bim into bonds, and kept him in custody.

3. But Herod's concern at present, now he had gotten his enemies under his power, was to restrain the zeal of his foreign auxiliaries ; for the multitude of the strange people were very eager to see the temple, and what was sacred in the holy house itlelf; but the king endeavoured to restrain them, partly by his exhortations, partly by his threatenings, nay, partly by force, as thinking the victory worle than a defeat to him if any thing that ought not to be leen were seen by them. He also forbade, at the same time the spoiling of the city, asking Sofus in the most earnest manner, whether the Romans by thus emptying the city of money and men had a mind to leave him king of a desert; and told him. That" he judged the dominion of the habitable earth too small a compensation for the flaughter of so many citizens.” And when Sofus laid, “Thac it was but just to allow the soldiers this plunder as a reward for what they suffered during the siege," Herod made answer, that “ he would give every one of the soldiers a reward out of his own money," So he purchased the deliverance of his country, and performed his promiles to them, and made prela ents after a magnificent manner to each soldier, and proportionably to their commanders, and with a most royal bounty to Sofius himself, whereby nobody went away but in a weal. thy condition. Hereupon Solius dedicated a crown of gold to God, and then went away fro.n Jerusalern, leading Antigonus away in bonds to Antony ; then did the tas bring him to his end, who still had a fond desire of life, and some frigid hopes of it to the last, but by his cowardly behaviour well de. served to die by it.

4. Hereupon king Herod diftinguished the multitude that was in the city, and for those that were of his fide, he made them ftill more his friends by the honours he conferred on them; but for those of Antigonus's yarıy he New them; and as his money ran low, he turned all the ornaments he had in. to money, and sent it to Antony, and to those about him. Yet could he not hereby purchase an exemption from all suffer. ings; for Antony was now bewitched by his love to Cleopa. tra, and was entirely conquered by her charras. Now Cleó.

. . That is, A woman, not a man. * This death of Antigonus is confirmed by Plutarch and Strabo ; the latter of whom is cited for it by Josephus himself, Autig. B. XV. ch. i. fe&t. 2. Vol. II. as Dcan Aldrich here observesa

patra had put to death all her kindred, till no one near her in blood reniained alive, and after thai she tell a slaying those ng way related to her. So the calumniated the principal men de mong the Syrians to Antony, and persuaded him to have them fain, that so she might easily gain to be mistress of what they had; nay, the extended her avaricious humour to the Jewa and Arabians, and secretly laboured to have Herod and Malia chus, the kings of both those nations, llain by his order.

5. Now as to these her injunctions to Antony, he complied in part; for though he esteemed it too abominable a thing to kill such good and great kings, yet was he thereby alienated from the friendship he had for them. He also took away a great deal of their country ; nay, even the plantation of palm trees at Jericho, where also grows the balsam tree, and below. ed them upon her : As also all the cities on this fide the river Eleutherus, Tyre and Sidon * excepted And when the was become mistress of these, and had conducted Antony in his expedition against the Parthians, as far as Euphrates, The came by Apamia and Damascus into Judea ; and here did Herod pacify her indignation at him by large presents. He also hire ed of her those places that had been torn away from hi kingdom, at the yearly rent of two hundred talents. He condud. ed her also as far as Pelufium, and paid all the respects posible. Now it was not long after this that Antony was cone back trom Parthia,and led with him Artabazes Tigranes's son captive. as a present for Cleopatra ; for this Parthian was preienily given her with his money, and all the prey that was taken with him..

CHA P. XIX. How Antony, at the Persuaþon of Cleopatra, fent Herad in

fight against the Arabians; and how, after Jeueral Battles, he at length got the Victory. As also, concerning a great

Earthquake. 11. N OW when the war about A&ium was hegun, Herod

V prepared to come to the aslistance of Antony, as bea ing already, freed from his troubles in Judea, and having gain. ed Hyrcania which was a place that was held by Antigonus's fifter. However, he was cunningly hindered from partaking of the hazards that Antony went through by Cleopatra ; for since, as we have already noted, she had laid a plot against the kings (of Judea and Arabia,] the prevailed with Antony to commit the war against the Arabians to Herod; that lo, if he got the better, the might become mistress of Arabia, or if he were worsted, of Judea ; and that she might destroy one of thole kings by the other.

* This ancient liberty of Tyre and Sidon under the Romans, taken notice of be Jofephus, both here and Antiq. B. XV. ch. iv. fe&t. 1 Vol. II. is confirmed by the timony of Strabo, B. XVI p. 757, as Dean Aldrich remarks ; although, as he juftly adds, this liberty lasted but a little while longer, when Augustus took it away from them.

2. However this contrivance tended to the advantage of Herod; for at the very first he took hostages from the enemy, and got together a great body of horle, and ordered them to march against them about Diofpolis, and he conquered that army alihough it fought relolutely against him. Alter which defeat, the Arabians were in great motion, and assembled them.' felves together at Kanatha, a city of Celesyria, in vast multi, tudes, and waited for the Jews. And when Herod was come thither, he tried to manage this war with particular prudence, and gave orders that they should build a wall about their camp; yet did not the multitude comply with those orders, but were To emboldened by their foregoing victory, that they presently attacked the Arabians, and beat them at the first onset, and then pursued them ; yet were there snares laid for Herod in that purluit ; while Athenio, who was one of Cleopatra's gen. erals, and always an antagonist to Herod, sent out of Kanatha the men of that country against him ; for, upon this fresh on. set, the Arabians took courage, and returned back, and both joined their numerous forces about stoney places that were hard to be gone over, and there put Herod's men to the rout, and made a great slaughter of them : But those that escaped out of the battle fled to Ormiza, where the Arabians surrounded their camp, and took it, with all the men in it.

3. In a little time after this calamity, Herod came to bring them succours ; but he came too late. Now the occasion of that blow was this that the officers would not obey orders ; for had not the fight began lo suddenly Athenio had not found a proper season for the snares he laid for Herod : However, he was even with the Arabians afterward, and over run their country, and did them more harm than their single victory could compensate. But as he was avenging himlelf on his enemies, there fell upon him another providential calamity i for in the * seventh year of his reign, when the war about Aca tium was at the height, at the beginning of the spring, the earth was shaken, and destroyed an immense number of cattle, with thirty thousand men ; but the army received no harm,

*This seventh year of the reign of Herod [from the conquests or death of Antigonus,] with the great earthquake in the beginning of the same spring, which are bere fully implied to be not much before the fight at Adium, between O&avius and Antony, and which is known from the Roman historians to have been in the beginning of September, in the 3:1t year hefore the Christian æra, determines the chronology of josephus as to the reign of Herod, viz tha: he began in the year 37, beyond rational contradiction. Nor is it quite unworthy of our notice, that this seventh year of the reign of Herod, or the 31 before the Chriftian æra, contained the iafter part of a Sabbatic year; oh which Sabbatic year, therefore, it is plain this great carthquake happened in Judea.

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