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what country they travelled over, and what country they seized una on afterward, and how they were removed out of them, I think this Hot to be a fit opportunity, and on other accounts also superfluous ; and this because many Jerus before me have composed the histories of our ancestors very exactly; as have some of the Greeks done it also, and have translated cur histories into their own tongue, and kave not much mistaken the truth in their historics, But then, where the writers of these affairs, and our prophets, leave off, thence shall I take my rise, and begin my history. Now as to what concerns that war which happened in my own time, I will go over it very largely, and with all the diligence I am able ; but for what preceded mine own age, that I shall run over briefly,

7. [For example, I shall relate] how Antiochus, who was named EPIPHANES, 100k Jerusalem by force, and held it three years and tiiree months, and was then ejected out of the country by the sons of Asmeneus ; after that, how their posterity quarrelled about the government, and brought uport their settlement the Romans and Pompey; hot Hcrod also, the son of Antipater, dissolved their government, and brought Sosius upon them ; as also how our peopie made o sedition upon Herod's death, while Augustus was the Roman emperor, and Quintilius Varus was in that country; and how the war broke out in the twelfth year of Nero, with what hapfiened to Cestius ; and what places the Jews assaulted in an hostile manner in the first sallies of the war.

8. As also, [I shall relate] bow obey built walls about the neigh. boring cities; and how Nero, upou Cestius's defeat, was in fear of the entire event of the war, and thereupon made Vespasian general in this war; and how this Vespasian with ebe *elder of his sons, made an expedition into the country of Judea ; what was the numa ber of the Roman army that he made use of; and how many of his auxiliaries were cut off in all Galilee ; and how he took some of its ciries entirely, and by force, and others of them by ireary, and on

Now when I am come so far I shall describe the good order of the Romans in wat, and the discipline of their legions; the ampli. sude of both the Galilees, with its nature, and the limits of Judea. And besides this I shall parricularly go over whar is peculiar 10 the country, ehe lakes and fountains that are in them, and what miseries bappened 10 every city as they were taken; and all this wirb accurasy as I saw the things done, or suffered in ebem. For I shall not conceal any of the calamities I myself endured, since I shall relate ther to such as know the truth of them.

9. After rbis, [I shall relate] bow, when the Jews' affairs were become very bad, Nero died, and Vespasian, when he was going to asjack Jerusalem, was called back to take the government upon bimti

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wba: signs happened 10 him relating to bis gaining chat government, and wbar mutations of government then bappened at Rome, and how he was unwillingly made emperor by his soldiers, and bow upon bis departure to Egypi, 10 take upon him the government of the empires the afairs of obe Jews became very tumultuous ; as also bow the ryranis rose up againse them, and fell into dissensions amongst themselves.

10. Moreover, [I shall relate] bow Tirus marched out of Egypt in. 10 Judea, ibe second time; as also bow, and where, and how many forces be goi rogerber ; and in what state the city was by the means of the seditious ar bis coming ; what attacks be made, and bow many Tamparis be cast up; of the three walls that encompassed the city, and of their measures ; of the strength of the city and the Structure of the temple, and boly house; and besides, the mease ures of those edifices, and of the altar, and all accurately deter. mined. A descriprion also of certain of their festivals, and seven* purifications of purity, and the sacred ministrations of the priests, with the garments of the priests, and of the bigh priests; and of the nature of she most holy place of the temple, without concealing any ibing, or adding any shing to the known truth of things.

11. After sbis, I shall relate tbe barbariry of the tyrants towards she people of sheir own nation, as well as the indulgence of the Romans in sparing foreigners; and how often Tirus, out of his desire to preserve ibe city and obe temple, invited the seditions to come 10 serms of accommodasion. I sball also distinguish the sufferings of the people and their calamities ; how far they were afflicted by the sedition, and bow far by the famine, and at lengrb were saken. Nor shall lomit to mention she misfortunes of she disserters, nor she punishments inflicted on the caprives; as also how the temple was burnt, against the consent of Cæsar, and bow many sacred things shat had been laid up in the temple were snatched out of she fire; and the destruction also of obe entire city, with the signs and wonders that went before it; and she taking the tyranis caprives, and she multi'tude of those shar were made slaves, and into whai different misfor. tunes shey were every one distributed. Moreover, what the Romans did 10 rbe remains of the war; and how ibey demolished the strong holds bar were in the country; and how Titus went over the whole country, and seriled its affairs ; rogether with bis return into Italy, and bis triumpb.

These seven or rather five degreesof purity, or purification, are enumerated hereafter, B.V.ch. v. sect. 6.7o!. lll. The Rabbins make ten degrees of them, 38 Reland there informs us.

12. I have comprehended all these things in seven books; and bave left no occasion for complaint or accusation to such as have been acquainted with this war, and I have wrinen it down for the sake of those that love truth, but not for tbose that please themselves (wirb fictitious relations.] And I will begin my account of best sbings, with wbar I call my First Chapter,

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THE

WORKS

OF

FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS,

CONTAINING

THE WARS OF THE JEWS;

OR, THE HISTORY OF THE

DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM.

BOOK I.

Containing the interval of one hundred sixty-seven

years. [From the taking of JERUSALEM by ANTIOCHUS EPIPH

ANES, to the death of HEROD the Great.

c H A P. 1.

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How the City Jerusalem was taken, and the Temple pillaged [by

Antiochus Epiphanes. As also concerning the Adions of
the Maccabees, Matthias, and Judas; and concerning the
Death of Judas.
A?

T the same time that Antiochus who is called Epiph.

anes, had a quarrel with the sixth Ptolemy about his right to the whole country of Syria, a great fedition fell among the men of power in Judea, and they had a contention about obtaining the government; while each of those that were of dignity could not endure to be subject to their equals. However, Onias, one of the high-priests got the better, and cast the sons of Tobias out of the city; who fled to Antio. chus, and befought him to make ule of them for his leaders, and to make an expedition into Judea. The king being thereto disposed beforehand, complied with them, and came upon the Jews with a great army and took their city by force, and flew a great multitude of those shat favoured Prolemy, and sent out his soldiers to plunder them without mercy. He also spoiled the temple, and put a stop to the constant practice of offering a daily sacrifice of expiation for three years and fix months. But Onias the high-priest fled to Ptolemy, and

Vol. III.

received a place from him in the Nomus of Heliopolis, where he built a city resembling, Jerusalem, and a temple that was like * its temple ; concerning which we shall speak more in its proper place hereafter.

2. Now Antiochus was not satisfied either with his unexpect. ed taking the city, or with its pillage, or with the great slaughter he had made there ; but being overcome with his violent passions, and remembering what he had suffered during the fiege, he compelled the Jews to diffolve the laws of their country, and to keep their intants uncircumcised, and to sacrifice swines flesh upon the altar ; against which they all opposed themselves, and the most approved among them were put to death. Bacchides also, who was sent to keep the fortresses, having these wicked commands joined to his own natural barbarity, indulged all sorts of the extremest wickedness, and tormented the worthiest of the inhabitants, man by man, and threatened the city every day with open destruction, till at length be provoked the poor sufferers by the extremity of his wicked doings to avenge themfelves.

3. Accordingly Matthias, the son of Asamoneus, one of the priests who lived in a village called Modin, armed himself, together with his own family, which had five sons of his in it, and flew Bacchides with daggers; and thereupon out of tear of the many garrisons (of the enemyl, he fled to the mountains ; and so many of the people followed him, that he was encouraged to come down troin the mountains, and to give battle to Antiochus's generals, when he beat them and drove them out of Judea. So he came to the government by this his fuccess, and became the prince of his own people by their own free consent, and then died, leaving the government to Judas his eldest son.

4. Now Judas, supposing that Antiochus would not lie ftill, gathered an army out of his own country men, and was the first that made a league of friendship with the Romans, and drove Epiphanes out of the country when he had made a second expedition into it, and this by giving him a great defeat there ; and when he was warmed by this great Iuccess, he made an assault upon the garrilon that was in the city, for it had not been cut off hitherto ; so he ejected them out of the Upper City, and drove the soldiers into the Lower, which part of the city was called the Citadel. He then got the temple under his power, and cleansed the whole place, and walled it round about, and made new vessels for sacred miniftrations, and brought them into the temple, because the former

I see little difference in the liveral accounts in Josephus about the Egyptian temple Onion, of which large complaints are made by his commentators. Onias, is frems, hoped to have made it very like that at Jerusalem, and of the same dimentions; and to lie appears to have really done, as far as he was able, and thought proper. Of this temple, lee Antiq. B. XIil, chap. iii § 1, 2, 3. Vol. II. and or the l'ar, B. VII. ch. x. $ 3.

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