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and to those whom he had not power to punila actually, he fpake harshly ; but for Antipater, he insulted Alexander, now he was under his misfortunes, and got a stout company of his kindred together, and raised all sorts of calumny against him : And for the king, he was brought to such a degree of terror by those prodigious flanders and contrivances, that he lanci. ed he faw Alexander coming to him with a drawn sword in his hand; fo he caníed him to be seized upon immediately and bound, and fell to examining his friends by torture, many of whom died (under the torture], but would discover nothing: nor say any ihing against their consciences ; but some of them, being forced to speak falsely by the pains they endured, said that Alexander, and his brother Ariftobulus, plotted against him and waited for an opportunity to kill him as he was hunting, and then fly away to Rome. These accusations though they were of an incredible nature, and only framed upon the great distress they were in, were readily believed by the king. who thought it some comfort to him, after he had bound his fon, that it might appear he had not done it unjustly.


Archelaus procures a reconciliation between Alexander, Phero

ras, and Herod. . 1. NOW

OW as to Alexander, since he perceived it impor.

sible to persuade his father (that he was innocent), he resolved to meet his calamities how severe loever they were; so he composed four books againt his enemies, and confessed that he had been in a plot ; but declared withal that the greatest part [of the countries were in a plot with him, and chiefly Pheroras, and Salome ; nay that Salome once came and forced him to lie with her in the night time, whether he would or no. These books were put into Herod's hands, and made a great clamour against the men in power. And now it was that Archelaus came hastily into Judea, as being affrighted for his son-in-law, and his daughter; and he came as a proper affiftant, and in a very prudent manner, and by a ftratagem he obliged the king not to execute what he had threatened; for when he was come to him he cried out, “Where in the world is this wretched son in-law of mine ? Where thall I see the head of his which contrived to murder his father, which I will tear to pieces with my own hands. I will do the same also to my daughter, who hath such a fine huiband : For although the be not a partner in the plot yet, by being the wite ot luch a creature, the is polluted. And I cannot but admire at thy patience, against whom this plot is jaid, if Alexander be still alive ; for as I came with what hafte I could from Cappadocia, I expected to find him put to deatb for his crimes long ago ; but fill in order to make an examination with thee about my daughter, whom, out of regard to thee, and thy dignity, I had elpoused to him in marriage ; but now we must take counsel about them both; and if thy paternal affection be so great, that thou canst not punish thy fon, who hath plotted against thee, let us change our right hands, and let us lucceed one to the other in expressing our rage up: on this occasion."

2. When he had made this pompous declaration, he got Herod to remit of his anger, though he were in disorder, who thereupon gave him the books which Alexander had composed to be read by him, and as he came to every head, he considered of it, together with Herod. So Archelaus took hence the occasion for that stratagem which he made use of, and by degrees he had the blame on tho!e men whose names were intnee books and especially upon Pheroras; and when' he saw that the king believed him to be in earneft], he said, We must consider whether the young man be not himself ploited against by such a number of wicked wretches, and not ihou plotted against by the young man ; for I cannot see any occasion lor his falling into so horrid a crime, since he enjoys the advantages of royalty aiready, and has the expectation of being one of thy l'accessors; I mean this unless there were some persons that persuade him to it, and such persons as make an ill use of the facility they know there is to persuade young men ; tor by such persons, not only young men are lometimes imposed upon, but old men allo, and by them fometimes are the moft illustrious families and kingdoms overturned.

3. Herod aflented to what he had faid, and, by degrees, abated of his anger against Alexander ; but was more angry at Pheroras; for the principal fubject of the four books was Pheroras who perceiving that the king's inclinations changed on a sudden, and that Archelaus's friendship.could do every thing with him, and that he had no honourable method of preserving himlelf, he procured his safety by his impudence. So he left Alexander, and had recourse to Archelaus, who told him, That “ he did not see how he could get him ex. cused, now he was directly caught in so many crimes, whereby it was evidently demonstrated, that he had plotted again ft the king, and had been the caule of those mislortunes which the young man was now under, unless he would moreover leave off his cunning knavery, and his denials of what he was charged withal, and confess the charge, and implore pardon of his brother, who still had a kindness for him; but that if he would do so, he would afford him all the aftstance he was able."

4. With this advice Pheroras complied, and, putting him. fell into such a habit as might most move .compassion, he came with black cloth upon his body, and tears in bis eyes, and threw himself down at Herod's feet, and begged his pardon for what he had done, and confessed that he had acted very wickedly, and was guilty of every thing that he had been accused of, and lamented that disorder of his mind, and diftrac. tion which his love to a woman, he said had brought him to. So when Archelaus had brought Pheroras to accuse and bear witnels against himself he then made an excuse for him, and mitigated Herod's anger towards him, and this by using cer. tain domeftical examples ; "For that when he had suffered much greater mischiefs from a brother of his own he prefer. red the obligations of nature, before the passion of revenge ; because it is in kingdoms, as it is in gross bodies, where some member or other is ever swelled by the body's weight, in which case it is not proper to cut off such member, but tij heal it by a gentle method of cure."

5. Upon Archelaus's laying this, and much more to the same purpose, Herod's dilpleasure against Pheroras was moli: fied ; yet did he persevere in his own indignation against A: lexander, and laid, he would have his daughter divorced, and taken away from bim, and this till he had brought Herod to that pass that contrary to his former behaviour to him, he pe. titioned Archelaus for the young man, and that he would let his daughter continue espouled to him : But Archelaus made him strongly believe that he would permit her to be married to any one elfe, but not to Alexander, because he looked upon it as a very valuable advantage that the relation they had contracted by that affinity, and the privileges that went along with it might be preserved. “And when the king laid that his son would take it for a great favour to him, if he would not dissolve that marriage, especially since they had already chil dren between the young man and her, and since that wite of his was so well beloved by him, and that as while the remains his wife she would be a great preservative to him, and keep him from offending, as he had formerly done ; so if the should be once torn away from him, the would be the caule of his falling into despair ; because such young mens attempts are best mollified, when they are diverted from them by settling their affections at home." So Archelaus complied with what Herod desired, but not without difficulty, and was both himself reconciled to the young man, and reconciled his father to him also. However, he said he must, hy all means be sent to Rome to discourse with Cælar, because he had already write ten a full account to him of this whole matter.

6. Thus a period was put to Archelaus's stratagem, wherehy he delivered his son-in-law out of the dangers he was in : But when these reconciliations were over, they spent their time in feastings and agreeable entertainments. And wben Archelaus was going away, Herod made him a present of Seventy talents, with a golden throne set with precious stones, and some eunuchs, and a concubine who was called Pannychis. He also paid due honours to every one of his friends according to their dignity. In like manner did all the king's kindred, by his command, make glorious prelents to Archeļaus; and so he was conducted on his way by Herod and his nobility as far as Antioch.


How * Eurycles calumniated the Sons of Mariamne : And how

Euaratus of Cos's Apology for them had no Effect. \ 1. NOW

OW a little afterward there came into Judea a man

that was much superior to Archelaus's stratagems, who did not only overturn that reconciliation that had been so wisely made with Alexander, but proved the occasion of his ruin. He was a Lacedemonian, and his name was Eurycles. He was so corrupt a man, that out of the desire of getțing money, he chose to live under a king, for Greece could not suffice hiş luxury. He presented Herod with splendid gifts, as a bait which he laid in order to compals his ends, and quickly receiving them back again manifold; yet did he es. teem bare gifts as nothing, unless he imbrued the kingdom in blood by his purchases. Accordingly he imposed upon the king by flattering him, and by talking subtily' to him, as also by The lying encomiums which he made upon him; for as he soon perceived Herod's blind lide, so he faid and did every thing that might please him, and thereby became one of his most intimate friends; for both the king and all that were about him, had a great regard for this t Spartan on account of his country.

2. Now as soon as this fellow perceived the rotten parts of the family, and what quarrels the brothers had one with another, and in what disposition the father was towards each of them, he chose to take his lodging at the first in the house of Antipater, but deluded Alexander with a pretence of friend. fhip to him, and falsely claimed to be an old acquaintance of Archelaus; for which reason he was presently admitted into Alexander's familiarity as a faithful friend. He also soon re.

This vile fellow, Eurycles the Lacedemonian, seems to have been the fame who is mentioned by Plutarch, as 25 years before a companion to Mark Antony, and as living with Herod ; whence he might casily inlinuate himself into the aco quaintance of Herod's sons, Antipater and Alexander, as Usher, Hudlon, and Spanheim juftly suppose. The reason why his being a Spartan rendered him ac. ceptable to the Jews, as we here se he was, is visible from the public records of the Jews and Spartans, owning thole Spartans to be of kin to the Jews, and derived from their common ancellor Abraham, the first patriarch of the Jewish nation. Antiq. B. XII. ch. iv. Sat. 10. B. XIII. ch. y. lect. 8 Vol. II. and a Macc. 8. *II. ch, yii.

+ See the preseeding note.


commended himself to his brother Ariftobulus. And when he had thus made trial of these several persons, he imposed upon one of them by one method, and upon another by anoth

But he was principally hired by Antipater, and so be. trayed Alexander, and this by reproaching Antipater, because while he was the eldest son, he overlooked the intrigues of those who stood in the way of his expectations; and by reproaching Alexander, because he who was born of a queen, and was married to a king's daughter permitted one that was born of a mean woman to lay claim to the Succession, and this when he had Archelaus to support him in the most complete manner. Nor was his advice thought to be other than faithful by the young man, because of his pretended friendship with Archelaus : On which account it was that Alexander lamented to him Antipater's behaviour with regard to himself, and this without concealing any thing from him ; and how it was no wonder if Herod, after he had killed their mother, thould deprive them of her kingdom. Upon this Eurycles pretended to commiserate his condition, and to grieve with him. He also, by a bait that he laid for hin, procured Ariftobulus to say the same things. Thus did he inveigle both the brothers to make complaints of their father and then went to Antipa. ter, and carried these grand secrets to him. He also added a fi&tion of his own, as if his brothers had laid a plot against him, and were almost ready to come upon him with their drawn swords. For this intelligence he received a great sum of money, and on that account he commended Antipater be. fore his father, and at length undertook the work of bringing Alexander and Aristobulus to their graves, and accused them betore their father. So he came to Herod and told him, That “ he would save his life as a requital for the favours he had received from him, and would prelerve his light [of lifel by. way of retribution for his kind entertainment: For that a sword had been long whetted, and Alexander's right hand had been long stretched out against him ; but that he had laid impedi. ments in his way, prevented his speed, and that by, pretend. ing to afliit him in his design: How Alexander laid, that Herod was not contented to reign in a kingdom that belonged to others, and to make delapidations in their mother's gov. ernment, after he had killed her ; but belides all this, that he introduced a spurious fucceffor, and proposed to give the kingdom of their ancestors to that pestilent !ellow Antipater : That he would now appeafe the ghosts of Hyrcanus and Ma. riamne, by taking vengeance on him ; for that it was not fit for him to take the iuccession to the government from such a father without bloodshed : That many things happen every day to provoke him so to do, insomuch, that he can say nothing at all, but it affords occasion for calumny against him; for that, if any mention be made of nobility of birth, even in other cases, he is abused unjustly, while his father would lay,

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