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and to those whom he had not power to punila aĉtually, he spake harshly ; but for Antipater, he insulted Alexander, now he was under his misfortunes, and got a stout company of his kindred together, and raised all sorts of calumny against him: And for the king, he was brought to such a degree of terror by those prodigious flanders and contrivances, that he lanci. ed he faw Alexander coming to him with a drawn sword in his hand ; so he caused him to be seized upon immediately and bound, and fell to examining his friends by torture, many of whom died sunder the torture], but would discover nothing nor say any thing against their consciences ; but some of them, being forced to speak falsely by the pains they endured, said that Alexander, and his brother Aristobulus, plotted against him and waited for an opportunity to kill him as he was hun. ting, and then fly away to Rome. These accusations, though they were of an incredible nature, and only framed upon the great distress they were in, were readily believed by the king. who thought it some comfort to him, after he had bound his fon, that it might appear he had not done it unjustly.


Archelaus procures a reconciliation between Alexander, Pherom

ras, and Herod. 01. N OW as to Alexander, since he perceived it impos.

I sible to persuade his father (that he was innocent, he resolved to meet his calamities how severe foever they were; so he composed four books againt his enemies, and confessed that he had been in a plot ; but declared withal that the greatest part of the countries were in a plot with him, and chiefly Pheroras, and Salome ; nay chat Salome once came and forced him to lie with her in the night time, whether he would or no. These books were put into Herod's hands, and made a great clamour against the men in power. And now it was that Archelaus came hastily into Judea, as being affrighted for his son-in-law, and his daughter; and he came as a proper affiftant, and in a very prudent manner, and by a fratagem he obliged the king not to execute what he had throatened; for when he was come to him he cried out. “Where in the world is this wretched son in-law of mine ? Where fhall I see the head of his which contrived to murder his father, which I will tear to pieces with my own hands. I will do the same also to my daughter, who hath such a fine husband': For although she be not a partner in the plot yet, by being the wite of such a creature, she is polluted. And I cannot but admire at thy patience, against whom this plot is jaid, if Alexander be still alive ; for as I came with what hafte I could from Cappadocia, I expected to find him put to deatb

for his crimes long ago; but still in order to make an exami. nation with thee about my daughter. whom, out of regard to thee, and thy dignity, I had elpoused to him in marriage; but now we must take counsel about them both ; and if thy paternal affection be so great, that thou canst not punish thy fon, who hath plotted against thee, let us change our right hands, and let us iucceed one to the other in expressing our rage up: on this occasion."

2. When he had made this pompous declaration, he got Herod to remit of his anger, though he were in disorder, who thereupon gave him the books which Alexander had composed to be read by him, and as he came to every head, he considered of it, together with Herod. So Archelaus took hence the occasion for that stratagem which he made use of, and by degrees he had the blame on tho!e men whose names were intuele books and especially upon Pheroras; and when he saw that the king believed him (to be in earneft], he said, “We must consider whether the young man be not himself ploited against by (uch a number of wicked wretches, and not thou plotted against by the young man; for I cannot see any occasion ląr his falling into fo horrid a crime, since he enjoys the advantages of royalty already, and has the expectation of being one of thy laccessors; I mean this unless there were fome persons that persuade him to it, and such persons as make an ill use of the facility they know there is to persuade young men ; for by such persons, not only young men are lometimes imposed upon, but old men also, and by them fometimes are the most illustrious families and kingdoms overturned.”

3. Herod afsented to what he had said, and, by degrees, abated of his anger against Alexander ; but was more angry at Pheroras; for the principal lubject of the four books was Pheroras who perceiving that the king's inclinations changed on a sudden, and that Archelaus's friendship.could do every thing with him, and that he had no honourable method of preserving himlelf, he procured his safety by his impudence. So he left Alexander, and had recourse to Archelaus, who told him, That “ he did not see how he could get him ex. cused, now he was directly caught in so many crimes, whereby it was evidently demonstrated, that he had plotted against the king, and had been the caule of those misfortunes which the young man was now under, unless he would moreover leave off his cunning knavery, and his denials of what he was charged withal, and confess the charge, and implore pardon of his brother, who still had a kindness for him ; but that if he would do so, he would afford him all the afbftance he was a. ble.

4. With this advice Pheroras complied, and, putting him. fell into such a habit as might most move compassion, he came with black cloth upon his body, and tears in bis eyes, and

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threw himself down at Herod's feet, and begged his pardon for what he had done, and conlessed that he had acted very wickedly, and was guilty of every thing that he had been ac. cused of, and lamented that disorder of his mind, and distrac. tion which his love to a woman, he said had brought him to. So when Archelaus had brought Pheroras to accuse and bear witnels against himselt he then made an excuse for him, and mitigated Herod's anger towards him, and this by using certain domeftical examples ; " For that when he had suffered much greater mischiefs from a brother of his own he prefer. red the obligations of nature, before the passion of revenge ; because it is in kingdoms, as it is in gross bodies, where some member or other is ever swelled by the body's weight, in which case it is not proper to cut off such member, but lij heal it by a gentle method of cure."

5. Upon Archelaus's saying this, and much more to the same purpose, Herod's dilpleasure against Pheroras was moli. fied ; yet did he persevere in his own indignation against A. lexander, and laid, he would have his daughter divorced, and taken away from bim, and this till he had brought Herod to that pass, that contrary to his former behaviour to him, he pe. titioned Archelaus for the young man, and that he would let his daughter continue espouled to him : But Archelaus made him strongly believe that he would permit her to be married to any one elfe, but not to Alexander, because he looked upon it as a very valuable advantage that the relation they had contracted by that affinity, and the privileges that went along with it mighi be preserved. And when the king said that his son would take it for a great favour to him, if he would not dissolve that marriage, especially since they had already chik dren between the young man and her, and since that wile of his was so well beloved by him, and that as while the remains his wife she would be a great preservative to him, and keep him trom offending, as he had formerly done ; so if the should be once torn away from him, he would be the caule of his falling into despair ; because such young meng attempts are best mollified, when they are diverted from them by settling their affections at home." So Archelaus complied with what Herod desired, but not without difficulty, and was both himself reconciled to the young man, and reconciled his father to him also. However, he said he must, by all means be sent to Rome to discourse with Cælar, because he had already write ten a full account to him of this whole matter.

6. Thus a period was put to Archelaus's stratagem, wherehy he delivered his son-in-law out of the dangers he was in : But when these reconciliations were over, they spent their time in feastings and agreeable entertainments. And wben Archelaus was going away, Herod made him a present of feventy alents, with a golden throne set with precious stones, and some eunuchs, and a concubine who was called Panny

chis. He also paid due honours to every one of his friends according to their dignity. In like manner did all the king's kindred, by his command, make glorious prelents to ArcheTaus; and so he was conducted on his way by Herod and his nobility as far as Antioch.


How * Eurycles calumniated the Sons of Mariamne : And how

Euaratus of Cos's Apology for them had no Effect.

TOW a little afterward there came into Judea a man

TV that was much superior to Archelaus's Itatagems, who did not only overturn that reconciliation that had been so wisely made with Alexander, but proved the occasion of his ruin. He was a Lacedemonian, and his name was Eury. cles. He was so corrupt a man, that out of the desire of getțing money, he chose to liye' under a king, for Greece could not suffice his luxury.' He presented Herod with splendid gifts, as a bait which he laid in order to compals his ends, and quickly receiving them back again manifold; yet did he es. teem bare gifts as nothing, unless he imbrued the kingdom in blood by his purchases. Accordingly he imposed upon the king by flattering him, and by talking subtily' to him, as also by the lying encomiurns which he made upon him ; for as he soon perceived Herod's blind side, so he said and did every thing that might please him, and thereby became one of his most intimate friends; for both the king and all that were about him, had a great regard tor this t Spartan on account of his country.

2. Now as soon as this fellow perceived the rotten parts of the family, and what quarrels the brothers had one with another, and in what disposition the lather was towards each of them, he chose to take his lodging at the first in the house of Antipater, bui deluded Alexander with a pretence of friend. ship co him, and falsely claimed to be an old acquaintance of Archelaus ; for which reason he was presently admitted into Alexander's familiarity as a faithful friend. He also soon re.

• This vile fellow, Eurycles the Lacedemonian, seems to have been the fame who is mentioned by Plutarch, as 25 years before a companion to Mark Antony. and as living with Herod ; whence he might casily insinuate himself into the ac quaintance of Herod's sons, Antipater and Alexander, as Usher, Hudlon, and Spanheim juftly suppose. The reason why his being a Spartan rendered him ac. ceptable to the Jews, as we here see he was, is visible from the public records of the Jews and Spartans, owning those Spartans to be vf kin to the Jews, and derived from their common ancellor Abraham, the first patriarch of the Jewish nation. Antiq. B. XII. ch. iv. f. 10. B. XIII. ch. y. lect. 8 Vol. II. and a Macc. R. *11. cb, yii.

+ See the preseeding note.

commended himself to his brother Ariftobulus. And when he had thus made trial of these several persons, he imposed upon one of them by one method, and upon another by another. But he was principally hired by Antipater, and so be. trayed Alexander, and this by reproaching Antipater, because while he was the eldest son, he overlooked the intrigues of those who stood in the way of his expectations; and by reproaching Alexander, because he who was born of a queen, and was married to a king's daughter permitted one that was born of a mean woman to lay claim to the succession, and this when he had Archelaus to support him in the most complete manner. Nor was his adyice thought to be other than faithful by the young man, because of his pretended friendship with Archelaus : On which account it was that Alexander lamented to him Antipater's behaviour with regard to himself, and this without concealing any thing from him ; and how it was no wonder if Herod, after he had killed their mother, should deprive them of her kingdom. Upon this Eury cles pretended to commiserate his condition, and to grieve with him. He also, by a bait that he laid for him, procured Ariftobulus to say the same things. Thus did he inveigle both the brothers to make complaints of their father and then went to Antipater, and carried these grand secrets to hiin. He also added a fi&tion of his own, as if his brothers had laid a plot against him, and were almost ready to come upon him with their drawn swords. For this intelligence he received a great sum of money, and on that account he commended Antipater before his father, and at length undertook ihe work of bringing Alexander and Ariftobulus to their graves, and accused them before their father. So he came to Herod and told him, That “ he would save his life as a requital for the favours he had received from him, and would prelerve his light [of life by way of retribution for his kind entertainment: For that a sword had been long whetted, and Alexander's right hand had been long stretched out against him ; but that he had laid impedi. ments in his way, prevented his speed, and that by pretend. ing to assist him in his design : How Alexander laid, that Herod was not contented to reign in a kingdom that belonged to others, and to make delapidations in their mother's gov. ernment, after he had killed her ; but belides all this, that he introduced a spurious successor, and proposed to give the kingdom of their ancestors to that peltilent !ellow Antipater : That he would now appease the ghosts of Hyrcanus and Mariamne, by taking vengeance on him ; for that it was not fit for him to take the iuccession to the government from such a father without bloodshed : That many things happen every day to provoke him so to do, insomuch, that he can say no. thing at all, but it affords occasion for calumny against him; for that, if any mention be made of nobility of birth, even in other cases, he is abused unjustly, while his father would lay,

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