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that nobody, to be sure, is of noble birth but Alexander, and that his father was inglorious for want of such nobility. If they be at any time hunting, and he says nothing, he gives of. fence; and it he commends any body, they take it in way ot. jeft : That they always find their father unmercifully severe, and have no natural affection for any of them but for Antipa. ter; on which accounts, if his plot does not take. he is very willing to die; but that in case he kill his father, he hath lui. ficient opportunities for saving himself. In the first place, he hath Archelaus his father-in-law to whom he can eally iy: and in the next place he hath Cælar, who hath never known Herod's character to this day ; for that he shall not appear then before him with that dread he used to do, when his father was. there to terrify him; and that he will not then produce the accusations that concerned himself alone, but would, in the first place, openly infft on the calamities of their nation, and how they are taxed to death, and in what ways of luxury and wicked practices that wealth is spent which was gotten by blood-lhed; what sort of persons they are that get our riches, and to whom those cities belong, upon whom he bestows his favours ; that he would have enquiry made what became of his grand-father (Hyrcanus), and his mother (Mariamne]; and would openly proclaim the grols wickedness that was in the kingdom ; on which accounts he fhould not be deemed a parricide,”

3. When Euricles had made this portentous speech, he greatly commended Antipater, as the only child that had an affe&lion for his father, and on that account was an impedi. ment to the others plot against him. Hereupon the king, who had hardly repressed his anger upon the former acculations, was exasperated to an incurable degree. At which time Ana tipater took another occafion to send in other persons to his father to accuse his brethren, and to tell him, that they had privately discoursed with Jucundus and Tyranus, who had once been masters of the horle to the king, but for some offences had been put out of that honourable employment. Herod was in a very great rage at these informations, and prefently ordered those men to be tortured : Yet did not they con. fels any thing of what the king had been informed ; but a certaia letter was produced, as written by Alexander to the governor of a castle, to desire him to receive him and Aristo. bulus into the cafle when he had killed his father, and to give them weapons and what other assistance he could upon that oc. calion. Alexander said, that this letter was a forgery of Dio. phantus. This Diophantus was the king's Secretary, a bold man, and cunning in counterfeiting any one's hand ; and after he had counterfeited a great number, he was at last put to death for it. Herod did also order the governor of the castle to be tortured, but got nothing out of him of wbat the accusations suggelted.

4. However, although Herod found the proofs too weak, he gave order to have his fons kept in custody; for till now they had been at liberty. He also called that pert of his family, and torger of all this vile accusation, Eurycles, his saviour and be: nefactor, and gave him a reward of fifty talents. Upon which he prevented any accurate accounts that could come of what he had done, by going immediately into Cappadocia, and there he got money of Archelaus, having the impudence to pretend that he had reconciled Herod to Alexander. He thence palled over into Greece, and used what he had thus wickedly gotten to the like wicked purposes. Accordingly he was twice accused before Cæfar, that he had filled Achaia with fedition, and had plundered its cities; and lo he was sent into banilhment. And thus was he punished for what wicked actions he had been guil. ty of about Ariftobulus and Alexander.

5. But it will be now worth while to put Euaratus of Cos in opposition to this Spartan ; for as he was one of Alexander's most intimate friends, and came to him in his travels at the same time that Eurycles came, so the king put the question to him, whether those things of which Alexander was accused were true p He assured him upon oath, that he had never heard any such things from the young men ; yet did this tefti. mony avail nothing for the clearing those milerable creatures : for Herod was only disposed and most ready to hearken to what made against them; and every one was most agreeable to him, that would believe they were guilty, and thewed their indignation at them.


Herod, by Cæfar's direction, accuses his fons at Berylus. They are not produced before the court but yet are condemned; and in a little time they are sent to Sebaste, and prangled there.

TOREOVER Salome exafperated Herod's cruelty

IV againft bis fons; for Ariitobulus was desirous to bring her, who was his mother-in-law and his aunt, into the like dangers with themselves; fo he sent to her to take care of her own safety, and told her, that the king was preparing to put her to death, on account of the accusation that was laid a. gainst her, as it when she formerly endeavoured to marry her: Telf to Sylleus the Arabian, she had discovered the king's grand secrets to him, who was the king's enemy; and this it was that came as the last storm, and entirely funk the young men when they were in great danger betore. For Salome came running to the king, and informed him of what admoni. tion had been given her, whereupon he could bare no longer, but commanded both the young men to be bound, and kept the one asunder from the other. He also sent Volumnius, the general of his army, to Cæsar immediately, as also his friend Olympus with him, who carried the informations in writing along with them. Now as soon as they had failed to Rome, and delivered the king's letters to Cæsar, Cæsar. was mightily troubled at the case of ihe young ren; yet did not he think he ought to take the power from the father of condemning his sons ; lo he wrote back to him, and appointed him to have the power over his sons ; but said withal, that he would do well to make an examination into this matter of the plot against him, in a public court, and to take for his assessors his own kindred, and the governors of the province. And it those sons be found guilty, to put them to death; but if they appear to have thought of no more than flying away from him, that he lhould moderate their punishment."

2. With these directions Herod complied, and came to Be. rytus, where Cæsar had ordered the court to be assembled, and got the judicature together. The presidents fat first, as Cæ. Tar's letters had appoinied, who were Saturninus, and Pedanius, and their lieutenants that were with them, with whom was the procurator Volumnius alfo ; next to them fat the king's kinsmen and friends, with Salome allo, and Pheroras ; after whom sat the principal men of all Syria, excepting Archelaus; for Herod had a suspicion of him, because he was Alex. ander's father-in-law. Yet did not he produce his sons in o. pen court ;- and this was done very cunningly, for he knew well enough that had they but appeared only, they would certainly have been pitied; and it withal they had been fut. fered to speak, Alexander would easily have answered what they were accused of ; but they were in custody at Platane, a village of the Sidonians.

3. So the king got up, and inveighed against his fons as if. they were present; and as for that part of the accusation that they had plotted against him, he urged it but faintly, because he was destitute of proofs ; but he inlisted belore the assessors on the reproaches, and jefts, and injurious carriage, and ten thousand the like offences against him, which were heavier than death itself; and when no body contradicted him, he moved them to pity his case, as though he had been condemned himself, now he had gained a bitter victory against his fons. So he asked every one's sentence, which sentence was first of all given by Saturninus, and was this, That he condemned the young men, but not to death ; for that it was not fit for him, who had three Tons of his own now present, to give his vote for the destruction of the son of another. The two lieuten. anis also gave the like vote ; some others there were also who followed their example ; but Volumnius began to vote on the more melancholy side, and all those that came after him condemned the young men to die, soine out of flattery, and some out of hatred to Herod ; but none out of indignation at their crimes. And now all Syria and Judea was in great expectaVOL. III.


tion, and waited for the last act of this tragedy ; yet did no bos dy suppose that Herod would be so barbarous as to murder his children ; however, he carried them away to Tyre, and thence failed to Cæsarea, and deliberated with himself what lort of death the young men should suffer.

4. Now there was a certain old soldier of the king's, whose name was Tero, who had a son that was very familiar with. and a friend to Alexander, and who himself particularly loved the young men. This soldier was in a manner distracted out of the excess of the indignation he had at what was doing : and at first he cried out aloud as he went about, " That justice was trampled under foot ; that truth was perished, and nature confounded; and that the life of man was full of iniquity," and every thing else that passion could suggest to a man who {pared not his own life; and at last he ventured to go to the king, and said, " Truly, I think, thou art a most miserable man, when thou hearkenest to moft wicked wretches, againft those that ought to be dearest to thee ; since thou hast frequently resolved that Pheroras and Salome should be put to death, and yet believeft them against thy fons ; while there, by cut. ting off the fucceffion of thine own sons, leave all wholly to Antipater, and thereby choose to have thee such a king as may be thoroughly in their own power. However, consider whether this death of Antipater's brethren will not make him hated by the soldiers ; for there is no body but commiserates the young men, and of the captains a great many fhew their indignation at it openly." Upon his faying this, he named those that had fuch indignation ; but the king ordered those men, with Tero himself, and his fon to be seized upon immee diately.

5. At which time there was a certain barber, whofe name was Trypho. This man leaped out frorn among the people in a kind of madness, and acculed himlelf, and said “This Tero endeavoured to persuade me also to cut thy throat with my ra. zor, when I trimmed thee, and promised that Alexander should give me large presents for so doing." When Herod heard this, he examined Tero, with his son and the barber, by the torture ; but as the others denied the accusation, and he said nothing farther, Herod gave order that Tero should be wracked more severely ; but his son, out ot pity to his father, promised to discover the whole to the king if he would grant that his father should be no longer tortured ;) when he had agreed to this, he said. That “ his father, at the persuasion of Alexan. der, had an intention to kill him." Now fome laid this was forged, in order to tree his father from his torments, and some faid it was true.

6. And now Herod accused the captains, and Tero, in an assembly of the people, and brought the people together in a body against them; and accordingly there were they put 10 death, together with [Trypho] the barber ; they were killed

by the pieces of wood, and the stones that were thrown at them. He also sent his sons to Sebaste, a city not far from Cæsarea, and ordered them to be there strangled : And as what he had ordered was executed immediately, so he commanded that their dead bodies should be brought to the fortress Alexandrium, to be buried with Alexander, their grandfather by the mother's fide. And this was the end of Alexander and Ariftobulus,

CHA P. XXVIII. How Antipater is hated of all Men ; and how the King ef

pouses the Sons of those that had been Nain to his Kindred ; but that Antipater made him change them for other Women. Of Herod's Marriages, and Children. $1. RUT an intolerable hatred fell upon Antipater from the

D nation, though he had now an indisputable title to the succession ; becaule they all knew that he was the perion who contrived all the calumnies against his brethren. How. ever, he began to be in a terrible fear, as he saw the posterity of those that had been flain growing up ; for Alexander had two sons by Glaphyra, Tigranes and Alexander ; and Aristo. bulus had Herod, and Agrippa, and Ariftobulus his fons, with Herodias and Mariamne his daughters, and all by Bernice, Salome's daughter ; as for Glaphyra, Herod, as soon as he had killed Alexander, sent her back, together with her portion to Cappadocia. He married Bernice, Ariftobulus's daughter, to Antipater's uncle by his mother, and it was Antipater, who, in order to reconcile her to him, when she had been at variance with him. çontrived this match : He also got into Phero. ras's favour, and into the favour of Cæsar's friends by presents, and other ways of obsequiousness, and sent no fmall lums of money to Rome : Saturninus also, and his friends in Syria, were all well replenished with the presents he made them ; yet the more he gave, the more he was hated, as not making these presents out of generosity, but spending his money out of fear. Accordingly it to fell out, that the receivers bore him no more good will than before, but that those to whom he gave noth. ing were his more bitter enemies. However, he bestowed his money every day more and more profusely, on observing thal, contrary to his expectations, the king was taking care a. bout the orphans, and discovering at the same time his repentance for killing their fathers, by his commiseration of those that sprang from them.

2. Accordingly Herod got together his kindred and friends, and set betore them the children, and with his eyes full of tears, said thus to them;" It was an unlucky fate that took away from me hese childrens fathers, which children are re

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