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commended to me by that natural commiferation which their orphan condition requires ; however I will endeavour, though I have been a most untoutunate father, to appear a betier grandfather, and to leave these children fuch curators after myself as are dearest to me. I therefore betroth thy daughter, Pheroras to the elder of these brethren, the children of Alexander, that thou mayest be obliged to take care of them. I al. so betroth thy son, Antipater the daughter of Ariftobulus ; be thou therefore a father to that orphan, and my son Herod [Phi. lip shall have her sister, whose grandfather, by the mother's side, was high-priest And let every one that loves me be of my sentiments in these disposicions, which none that hath an affection for me will abrogate.' And I pray God that he will join these children together in marriage, to the advantage of my kingdom, and ot my posterity, and may he look down with eyes more serene upon ihem than he looked upon their fathers."

3. While he spake these words, he wept, and joined the childrens right hands together; after which he embraced them every one after an affectionate manner, and dismissed the af. sembly. Upon this, Antipater was in gieat disorder immediately, and lamented publicly at what was done ; for he fup. posed that this dignity which was conferred on these orphans was for his own destruction, even in his father's lifetime, and that he should run another risk of losing the government, if Alexander's lon should have both Archelaus sa king), and Pheroras a tetrarch to support them. He also considered how he was himself hated by the nation, and how they pitied these orphans; how great affection the Jews bare to those brethren of his when they were alive, and how gladly they remembered them now they had perished by his means. So he resolved by all the ways poslable to get these espoulals diffolved.

4. Now he was afraid of going subtilly about this matter with his father, who was hard to be pleased, and was presenily moved upon tbe least suspicion : So he ventured to go to him directly, and to beg of him before his face, not to deprive him of that dignity which he had been pleased to bellow up. on him, and that he might not have the bare name of a king, while the power was in other persons; for that he should nev. er be able to keep the government, if Alexader's son was to have both his grandfather Archelaus, and Pheroras for his curators; and he befought him earnestly, since there were so many of the royal family alive, that he would change thole | intended] marriages. Now the king had * nine wives, and children by seven of them ; Antipater was himselt born of

* Dean Aldrich takes notice here, that these nine wives of Herod were alive at the same time, and that if the celebrated Mariamne, who was now dead, be recko oned, those wives were in all ten. Yet it is remarkable that he had no more than fifteen children by them all.

Doris, and Herod (Philip] of Mariamne, the high-priest's daughter; Antipas also and Archelaus were by Malthace, the Samaritan, as his daughter Olympias, which his brother Joseph's * son bad married ; by Cleopatra of Jerusalem he had Herod and Philip, and by Pallas, Phalaelus; he had also two daughters. Roxana and Salome, the one by Phedra, and the other by Elpis ; he had also two wives that had no children. the one his first cousin, and the other his niece ; and besides thele he had two daughters, the lifters of Alexander and Arif. tobulus, by Mariamne. Since, therefore, the royal family was lo numerous, Antipater prayed him to change these intended , marriages.

5. When the king perceived what disposition he was in towards these orphans, he was angry at it, and a fufpicion came into his mind, as to those sons whoin he had put to death whether that had not been brought about by the falle tales of Antipater; so at that time he made Antipater a long and a peevith answer, and bid him be gone. Yet was he afterwards prevailed upon cunningly by his flatteries, and changed the marriages; he married Ariftobulus's daughter to him, and his son to Pheroras's daughter

6. Now one may learn in this instance how very much this flattering Antipater could do, even what Salome in the like circumstances could not do ; for when the who was his sifter. and who by the means of Julia, Cælar's wife, earnestly desira ed leave to be married to Sylleus the Arabian, Herod swore he would esteem her his bitter enemy, unless she would leave off that project : He also caused her, against her own consent, to be married to Alexas, a friend of his, and that one of her daughters should be married to Alexas's son, and the other to Antipater's uncle by the mother's side. And for the daughters the king had by Mariamne, the one was married to Antipater, his lifter's son, and the other to his brother's lon. Phalaelus.


Antipater becoines intolerable. He is sent to Rome and carries

Herod's Testament with Him. Pheroras leaves his Brother,

that He máy keep his wife. He dies at home. 01. N OW when Antipater had cut off the hopes of the or

V phans, and had contracted such affinities as would be most for his own advantage, he proceeded briskly, as having a certain expectation of the kingdom, and as he had now aflurance added to his wickedness, he became intolerable ; for not

• To prevent confusion, it may not be amiss, with Dean Aldrich, to distinguish between four Josephs in the hiflory of Herod. 1. Joseph, Herod's uncle, and the [lecond husband of his Gfter Salome, flain by Herod, on account of Mariàmne.

being able to avoid the hatred of all people, he built his security upon the terror he struck into them. Pheroras also affifted hinz in his designs, looking upon him as already fixed in the kingdom. There was al!o a company of women in the court, which excited new disturbances; for Pheroras's wife, together with her mother and lifter, as also Antipater's mother, grew very im-, pudent in the palace. She also was insolent as to affront the king's *two daughters, on which account the king hated her to a great degree; yet although these women were hated by him, they domineered over others. There was only Salome who opposed their good agreement, and informed the king of their meetings, as not being for the advantage of his affairs. And when those women knew what calamities she had raised againft them, and how much Herod was displeased, they left off their public meetings, and friendly entertainments of one another ; nay, on the contrary, they pretend to quarrel one with another when the king was within hearing. The like dissimulation did Antipater make use of, and when matters were public, he opposed Pheroras ; but still they had private cabals, and merry meetings in the night-time; nor did the observation of others do any more than confirm their mutual agreement. However, Salome knew every thing they did, and told every thing to Herod.

2. But he was inflamed with anger at them, and chiefly at Pheroras's wife ; for Salome had principally acculed her. Sa he got an assembly of his friends and kindred together, and there accused this woman of many things, and particularly of the affronts she had offered his daughters ; and that she had supplied the Pharisees with money, by way of rewards for what they had done against him, and had procured his brother to become his enemy, by giving him love potions. At length he turned his Speech to Pheroras, and told him, Tbat “he would give him his choice of these two things, whether he would keep in with his brother, or with his wife " And when Pheroras said, that he would t die rather than forsake his wife, Herod not knowing what to do farther in that matter, turned his speech

2. Joseph, Herod's quæstor, or treasurer, fain on the same account. 3. Jofeph, Herod's brother, Nain in batile, against Antigonus 4. joleph, Herod's nephew, the husband of Olympias, mentioned in this place

These daughters of Herod, whom Pheroras's wife affronted, were Salome and Roxana, two virgins, who were born to him of his two wives, Elpide and Phedra. See Herod's genealogy, Antiq. B. XVII. ch. i fect. Vol. II.

+ This strange obftinacy of Pheroras in retaining his wife, who was one of a low family, and retusing to marry one nearly related to Herod, though he so carneftly defired it, as also that wife's admission to the counsels of the other great court ladies, together with Herod's own importunity as to Pheroras's divorce and other marriage, all so remarkable here or in the Antiquities, B. XVII. ch. ii. fect. 4. Vol. II. and ch. ii. fect. 3 cannot be well accounted for, but on the suppolal that Pheroras believed, and Herod suspected that the Pharisees predi&tion, as if the crown of Judea should be translated from Herod to Pheroras's pofterity, and that most probably to Pheroras's pofterity by his wife, also would prove true, Sec Antiq. B. XVII. ch ii. sect. 4, and ch. iii. sect. 1. Vol. II.

to Antipater, and charged him to have no intercourse either with Pheroras's wife or with Pheroras himself, or with any one belonging to her. Now, though Antipater did not transgress that his injunction publicly, yet did he in secret come to their nightmeeting; and because he was afraid that Salome observed what he did, he procured, by the means of his Italian friends, that he might go and live at Rome; for when they wrote that it was proper for Antipater to be sent to Cæsar for some time, Herod made no delay, but sent him, and that with a splendid attend. ance, and a great deal of money, and gave him his teftament to carry with him, wherein Antipater had the kingdom bequeath. ed to him, and wherein Herod was named tor Antipater's suc. ceffor, that Herod, I mean, who was the lon of Mariamne, the high-priest's daughter.

3. Sylleus allo, the Arabian, failed to Rome, without any regard to Cæsar's injunctions, and this in order to oppose Antipater with all his might, as to that law-suit which Nicolaus had with him before. This Sylleus had also a great conteft with Aretas his own king ; for he had llain many others of A. tetas's friends, and particularly Sohemus, the most potent man in the city Petra. Moreover, he had prevailed with Phabatus, who was Herod's steward, by giving him a great sum of mon: ey to affist him against Herod; but when Herod gave him more, he induced him to leave Sylleus, and by his means he demanded of him all that Cæsar had required of him to pay, But when Sylleus paid nothing of what he was to pay, and did also accure Phabatus to Cæfar, and said that he was not a steward for Cæsar's advantage, but for Herod's, Phabatus was angry at him on that account, but was still in very great el. teem with Herod, and discovered Sylleus's grand secrets, and told the king that Sylleus had corrupted Corinthus, one of the guards of his body, by bribing him, and of whom he mult therefore have a care. Accordingly the king complied, for this Corinthus, though he were brought up in Herod's kingdom, yet was he by birth an Arabian, so the king ordered him to be taken up immediately, and not only him, but two other Arabians who were caught with him ; the one of them was Sylleus's friend, the other the head of a tribe. The laft being put to the torture confessed that they had prevailed with Corinthus for a large sum of money to kill Herod; and when they had been farther examined before Saturninus the president of Syria, they were sent to Rome. ,

4. However, Herod did not leave off importuning Pheroras, bui proceeding to force him to put away his wife ; yet could he not devise any way by which he could bring the woman herself to punilhinent, although he had many causes of hatred to her ; till at length he was in such great uneasiness at her, that he cast both her and his brother out of his kingdom, Pheroras took his injury very patiently, and went away into his own tetrarchy [Perea beyond Jordan, and sware that there should be but one end put to his flight, and that should be Herod's death ; and that he would never return while he was alive. Nor indeed would he return when his brother was fick: although he earnestly fent for him to come to him, because he had a mind to leave some injunctions with him before he di, ed; but Herod unexpectedly recovered. A little afterward Pheroras himself fell sick, when Herod shewed great modera. țion; for he came to him and pitied his case, and took care of him ; but his affection for him did him no good, for Pheroras died a little afterward. Now, though Herod had so great an affe&tion for him to the last day of his life, yet was a report spread abroad that he had killed him hy poison. However, he took care to have his dead body carried to Jerusalein, and appointed a very great mourning to the whole nation for him and bestowed a most pompous funeral upon him. And this was the end that one of Alexander's and Ariftobulus's murderers came to.


When Herod made enquiry about Pheroras's death, a discovery

was made that Antipater had prepared a poisonous draughi for him. Herod cajis Doris and her accomplices, as also MaTiamne, out of the palace, and blots her Son Herod out of his

testament. $1. RUT now the punishment was transferred unto the o

riginal author Antipater, and took its rise from the death of Pheroras : For certian of his freed-men came with a fad countenance to the king, and told him, That" his brother had been destroyed by poison, and that his wife had brought him somewhat that was prepared after an unusual manner, and that upon his eating it, he presently fell into his distemper : That Antipater's mother and Gfter two days before brought a woman out of Arabia that was skilful in mixing luch drugs, that she might prepare a love poţion for Pheroras ; and that instead of a love potion, she had given him deadly poison ; and that this was done by the management of Sylleus, who was acquainted with that woman."

2. The king was deeply affected with so many suspicions, and had the maid servants and some of the free women olso tortured ; one of which cried out in her agonies, “ May that God that governs the earth and the heaven, punish this author of all these our miseries, Antipater's mother !” The king took a handle from this confession, and proceeded to enquire farther into the truth of the matter. So this woman discovered the friendlhip of Antipater's mother to Pheroras and Antipater's women, as also their secret meetings, and that Pheroras and Antipater had drunk with them for a whole night

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