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ing the thought that the Christian communities of Europe and America may soon perceive that their interest, as well as their duty to God, demands of states and empires the observance of the golden rule of the Gospel.

When right reason and Christianity shall so far have enlightened Christian nations, as to bring into international practice the principles of the moral law of nations, as we have shown them to have been enacted by the Supreme Law Giver, war with its savage atrocities and its wide-spread devastations must cease, and the olive branch will displace the sword streaming with human blood.

We have shown the application of our code to the leading rights and duties of nations. In all other particulars' and unexplained cases we refer to the great dial in the heavens to which the finger of God points us, do as you would be done unto. This is the law of universal application, which must decide in all cases the right and duty of nations. It is an infalible guide like the north star, and is ever radiant with light and glory.

We have endeavored to unfold the general elementary code of the moral law of nations as God has enacted it, and as it is recognized in the declaration of Alexander of Russia and his royal associates of the 26th day of September, 1815, and in the Farewell Address of Washington. Our high authority is that of the Almighty Ruler of the universe, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and who ruleth over the hosts of heaven as well as the inhabitants of the earth. May the nations learn and obey the law of the High and Holy One, and find permanent peace and prosperity.

APPENDIX TO PART I.

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That we may repose our principles of American polity upon the highest authority, we annex extracts from the Farewell Address of President Washington, which embodies the principles of our republic as sustained by every succeeding administration to the present day; and the fundamental constitution of the Holy Alliance. This latter document written, as it is said, by the Emperor Alexander, declared the firm determination of the three subscribing sovereigns to administer their respective governments and to regulate their international relations with all states by “the doctrines of the Gospel, the precepts of justice, of charity and of peace, which, far from being applicable only to private life, ought, on the contrary, to influence directly the resolutions of princes, and guide all their steps, as being the only means of giving solidity to human institutions and of remedying their imperfections.” This Holy Alliance, “Sainte Alliance," in the name of the Holy and Indivisible Trinity,” proclaimed to the

Universe the same doctrines of peace, justice and benevolence, which the father of our republic so solemnly put forth in his Farewell Address. It is worthy of remark that both declarations assert that nations, as well as individuals, are bound to observe the precepts of the Gospel as a duty to God and the only means of national felicity. The people of the United States, and all their Presidents have sanctioned the noble principles of Washington, and the Christian sovereigns of Europe, by uniting in a kingly league, on the basis of the Holy Alliance of the Emperors of Russia and Austria and the king of Prussia, have given their adhesion to the holy and heavenly doctrines of that celebrated royal compact. Europe and America thus stand committed to the principles of peace, equity and mercy as enjoined by the Gospel. Upon the precepts of our holy religion, identical, as we have shown, with natural law, reposes our moral law of nations. We copy the celebrated documents, one partially and the other fully, in order that it may appear that we have the highest human authority in favor of our code of international law. The authority on which we rely is the law of God interwoven in the nature of man, recorded on the pages of history and in Divine revelation. We cite these great and excellent documents, as sol. emn American and European national admissions in the face of the world, of the truth of our exposition of international rights and duties.

Extracts from President Washington's Farewell

Address to the People of the United States in 1796 :

“Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man claim the tribute of patriotism, who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness, these firmest props of the duties of men and citi

The mere politician, equally with the pious man, ought to respect and to cherish them. A volume could not trace all their connexions with private and public felicity.”

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“ It is substantially true, that virtue or morality is a necessary spring of popular government. The rule, indeed, extends with more or less force to every species of free government. Who that is a sincere friend to it can look with indifference

upon attempts to shake the foundation of the fabric ?"

“ Promote, then, as an object of primary importance, institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, it should be enlightened."

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