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13. Upon this, however, it is not for us here to dilate.-Idem.

14. The object of Bible Societies is so simple that all Protestants, at least, concur in their support.-Channing.

15. During the rest of his consular year, Bibulus could only escape outrage by not only avoiding all assemblies of the people, but every solemn and important meeting of the senate.--History of Rome, Lardner's Cyclopædia.

16. But vigour and resolution are not alone capable of achieving success, though they are generally necessary towards it.-Alison.

17. But the consequences of these operations of his troops were still of greater importance to the French king.–Robertson.

18. The happy genius of Buchanan, equally formed to excel in prose and in verse, more various, &c.-Idem.

19. A master-mind was equally wanting in the cabinet and in the field.-Southey. RULE XII. TAUTOLOGY, PLEONASM, AND DOUBLE

NEGATIVES. * 253. Tautological expressions ought to be avoided, and no word should be introduced into a sentence which has not some distinct function to perform. “ From whence came he?” should be, “ Whence came he?” because, as we already saw, whence, in itself, means from what place.” Again, in the sentence, “ I doubt not but that he will come,” it is obvious, on a little reflection, that the idea intended would be completely conveyed by this form of expression“ I doubt not that he will come,” and the insertion of but serves no useful purpose. By reversing the sentence, this may be more obvious—“ He will come, I doubt not that (thing).

254. It follows from this that two negatives ought not to be used, unless affirmation is meant. In this respect Bacon, Shakspeare, and Locke, and indeed all our early writers, frequently offend. Usage was in their times divided ; but it has now become fixed, and that on the side of metaphysical propriety.

« The joys of parents are secret, and so are their griefs and fears; they cannot utter the one, nor will they not utter the other.” Shakspeare's

* On the subject of this rule, many valuable observations occur in that most excellent work “ Campbell's Philosophy of Rhetoric;" consult especially, book iii. ch. ii.

Bacon says,

TAUTOLOGY, PLEONASM, AND DOUBLE NEGATIVES. 137

ever.

“ be not too tame neither,and “ nor do not saw the air too much,” are errors of the same sort. Goldsmith has frequently violated the idiom of the English tongue in this respect, although he has offended in good company:

" Never was a fleet more completely equipped, nor never had the nation more sanguine hopes of success.” Never should be

“ He is not unjust” is right, if we mean to express much the same idea as is conveyed by the words, “ He is just." By some it is maintained that this mode of expression strengthens the affirmation, and certainly it may do so in spoken language; but in writing it serves only to introduce ambiguity, and so ought to be avoided by those who do not wish to use language as an instrument for concealing thought."

EXAMPLES.

1. Every text germinated into meanings far from obvious, but which were presumed to be not undesigned.Hallam.

2. Mary was not by any means illiterate.-Idem.
3. Nor did they not perceive the evil plight
In which they were, or the fierce pains not feel.

Milton. 4. Nor has he gone without his reward.-Carlyle.

SENTENCES TO BE CORRECTED.—253 and 254.

1. The different departments of science and of art mutually reflect light on ach other.—Stewart.

2. An (?) universal thrill was felt over all Europe at this awful catastrophe.-Alison.

3. On all sides, and every direction, there was one unanimous cry for arms.-Idem.

4. The leaders of the fleet and the army began mutually to accuse each other.-Goldsmith.

5. They leave so much imperfectly known, that in all ages he has never been content without trying, &c.Hallam.

6. When we have no established principles to guide us, we must needs act on the best extemporaneous conjectures we can form.Whately.

7. Greece was indebted for the first rudiments of civilisation to the Egyptians.-Tytler. 8. There could be little doubt but that many saints honoured by

the church had uttered things quite as strong as any that Fenelon's work contained.-Hallam.*

9. They were totally exempt from all taxes.-Reightley.

10. The French court, terrified at their losses, made an abortive attempt to obtain peace, but having failed in this, a successful application for assistance was made to the king of Spain.-Goldsmith.

11. The youth of Clyestra gave her a superior ascendant.Gibbon.

RULE XIII.-CONJUNCTIONS AND PREPOSITIONS.

255. Certain conjunctions go in pairs : thus, both, alike, or equally, and; either, or; neither, nor; though or although, yet; whether, or; so, that ; not only or not merely, but, or but also ; so, as; as, as ; such or same, as. Most of these words are conjunctions, but not all. “ I will neither come or send” is wrong; because or is not the correlative of neither: it ought to be, “I will either come or send,” or, “ I will neither come nor send."

256. Certain prepositions are appropriated to certain words and phrases. We do not say,

“ To have faith to a person,” but “ in a person;" “ To find difficulty with doing a thing,” but “ in doing it ;" “ To differ with a person;” but “ from a person.” We do not pretend to give a complete list, but we shall add as many examples as will illustrate what is meant. Errors, we must further observe, are frequently committed by using prepositions with verbs which do not require or admit them. Such idiomatic expressions are only to be made famili by an extensive and well directed course of study; or, as Milton has it, “ by a well continued and judicious conversing among pure authors.”

* Writers are not very consistent in the use of conjunctions after the word. doubt. The most common use is exhibited in the following extracts :

There is little doubt, from some parts of Mr Goodwin's work, that he was indebted to Mr Edwards for, &c.Hall.

Can we doubt that Archimedes did not, &c.--Idem.

I cannot doubt that I have contributed something to the general literature of my country.-Hallam.

Sometimes but is used alone ; as,

It is not doubted but the archbishops, &c., were constituent members of this council.-Hume.

CONJUNCTIONS AND PREPOSITIONS.

139

257. As supplementary to the two last paragraphs, we may state as a general rule, that derivative words take the same prepositions after them as their primitives, unless where the affix of the compound word reverses their meaning: thus, we say, “ dependent on,” but “independent of," "s united with,” but “ disunited from.”

Goldsmith offends in saying, «« Catiline was insatiable of wealth ;" because we do not say to satiate (the primitive of insatiable) a person of wealth, but with wealth.

258. It is further to be observed, that when two or more clauses are meant to affect a common object, care must be taken to use the appropriate preposition with each ; thus, Dr Arnold says,

“ The citizens of one country could neither intermarry with, nor inherit, nor purchase land from those of any other.” Inherit happens to take the same preposition after it as purchase, else it would have required one immediately after it too—all applying to the clause “ those of any other.”

EXAMPLES.

(255.). 1. Regardless alike of private honour and public faith.--Alison.

2. The curse denounced upon such as remove ancient landmarks, upon those who call good evil, and evil good, falls with accumulated weight on the advocates of modern infidelity.--Hall.

3. Though this be the principal part, and our main care should be about the inside, yet the clay cottage is not to be neglected.Locke.

4. Among other things in this chapter, Grotius determines that neither an unequal alliance, that is, where one party retains great advantages, nor a feudal homage, take (?) away the character of sovereignty.-Hallam.

5. The plan of his policy was equally generous and prudent.Hume.

6. Volumes have not only been read, but written in flying journeys.-Channing.

(256.) 7. If I were to pray for a taste which should stand me in stead under every variety of circumstances, and be a source of happiness and cheerfulness to me through life, and a shield against its ills, however things might go amiss, and the world frown upon me, it would be a taste for reading.-Herschel.

8. He preferred “ seeking the bubble reputation at the cannon's

mouth,” to waiting by patience and combination the tardier honours of the general.- Alison.

9. They are, compared with Aristotle, like the ephemeral demagogues who start up to a power they abuse as well as usurp on the overthrow of some ancient tyranny.-Hallam.

10. The fourteenth century was not in the slightest degree superior to the preceding age.-Idem.

11. On your conduct at this moment depends (?) the colour and complexion of their destiny.-Hall.

(257.) 12. The substitution of Christianity itself for heathenism, undoubtedly accelerated the fall of the Roman empire.-Alison.

13. The same praiseworthy diligence in hunting error to its lurking places, distinguishes the short treatise on the conduct of the understanding.-Hallam.

14. The pride and policy of Sapor prompted him to fill the vacant throne with a successor entirely dependent on his pleasure.–Gibbon.

15. It is to the pure taste of the artists of Southern Europe that their remarkable superiority to those of this country is to be ascribed.-Alison.

(258.) 16. If Spain had been worthy of and capable of discharging its duty to this noble colonial empire.—Alison.

17. France, as the natural consequence of and just retribution for her unjust interference in the North American insurrection, received twenty years of bloodshed.-Idem.

18. Our perception of vice and ill desert arises from and is the result of a comparison of actions with the nature and capacities of the agent.-Butler's Analogy.

19. A name can only be said to stand for or be a name of the things of which it can predicated.-Mill's Logic.

SENTENCES TO BE CORRECTED.-255-258.

1. A sense of moral obligation prepares men to discharge their duty alike in the shade of adverse as in the sunshine of prosperous fortune.-Alison.

2. Female blandishments never either absorbed his time nor clouded his judgment. Idem.

3. The natural preference which every man has for his own happiness above that of other people.-D, Stewart.

4. Some were insensible and some were invincible against the assaults of the flesh.-Gibbon.

5. There is, (?) however, in minds more healthfully constituted, a

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