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CONJUNCTIONS AND PREPOSITIONS.

141

belief and a disbelief grounded solely upon the evidence of the case, arising neither out of partiality nor out of prejudice against the supposed conclusions which may result from its truth or falsehood. -Arnold.

6. The name of Suarez is obscure in comparison of one who soon came forward in the great field of national jurisprudence.-Hallam.

7. The war of the Peloponnesus bound the lesser cities to the strictest subordination on the predominant powers.Tytler.

8. They introduced the taste of science and religion which distinguished Medina as the city of the book.–Gibbon.

9. We find it to have been the custom of Addison to be scarcely ever unprovided of some retreat in the immediate neighbourhood of London.—Lucy Aikin's Life of Addison.

10. This great philosopher, with whom I am always unwilling to differ, refers, &c.—D. Stewart.

11. But I will (?) doubtless find some English person at whom to make inquiries.-Scott.

12. His enemies exclaimed, his friends were offended, at such unusual conduct.—Keightley.

13. The commissioners were empowered to inquire into disorders and crimes of all kinds, and to inflict the proper punishments upon them.-Hume.

14. The posthumous volumes appeared in considerable intervals. -Hallam.

15. Milton uses several images—which bring down the Deity in a manner not consonant to philosophical religion.-Idem.

16. Poetry has the same tendency and aim with Christianity.Channing.

17. These new divines offered salvation upon easier terms, by substituting practice to belief, and a man's own efforts to vicarious satisfaction.-Aikin's Letters.

18. The depraved criminals, seeing so many chances of escape, ceased to have any fears for the uncertain penalties of criminal justice.-Alison.

19. The unskilfulness of the executioners aggravated the horrors of that death of torture which was then the legal punishment of high treason.—Mackintosh.

20. The Portuguese early formed a scheme of excluding all other nations from participating of the advantages of commerce with the east.–Robertson.

21. The admiration of this great poem was unanimous and enthusiastic.-Hallam. 22. The utmost attention was be

early formation of the mind and character.Tytler.

23. Austria would greatly have preferred gaining these advantages by the weight of her armed mediations than submitting them to the doubtful fortune of arms.-Alison.

24. Vested with almost unlimited power, and often placed in hostility with the aspiring spirit especially of Italian liberalism.- Idem.

25. The protection of Constantine, though well intended, diminished from its purity more than it added to its splendour.-Hall.

26. In adopting it they consult less with their reason than with their vices.—Idem.

27. At Cairo, the soldiers found all the luxuries of the East, which, for a time, compensated to them for their absence from Europe.- Alison.

28. The false theories of the Utopia are more than compensated (?) by the sense of justice and humanity that pervades it, and the bold censures on the vices of power.-Hallam.

29. These observances awakened the indignation of the reformers, who imagined they could not endeavour at suppressing them with too much zeal.- Robertson.

RULE XIV. THE USE OF THAN AND OF.

259. After the comparative degree, whether of adjectives or adverbs, and the adjective other, the conjunction than is used : thus, Better is a little with righteousness, than great revenues without right;" “ This is none other than the house of God.” We already (121) saw that the comparative ought not to be used when more than two are spoken about.

260. Of is generally used after an adjective in the superlative; thus, “ Solomon was the wisest of men.” Franklin was the most judicious of the Americans.”

EXAMPLES 1. The sermons of Tillotson were for half a century more read than any in our language.-Hallam.

2. Nobody can be taught faster than he can learn. -Johnson.

3. They claim no other liberty than what they wish the whole human race to possess.Hall.

4. No species of superstition was ever more terrible than that of the Druids.-Hume. 5.

For none made sweeter melody

Than did the poor blind boy. Wordsworth. 6. Jamaica is the largest and most valuable of the West Indian Islands belonging to Great Britain.—M'Culloch's Geog. Dict.

7. The Jerusalem was no sooner published than it was weighed

against the Orlando Furioso, and neither Italy nor Europe have (?) yet agreed which scale inclines.Hallam.

8. Necessity, the strongest of all laws, will, in every age, confine men to a single wife (!)- Alison.

SENTENCES TO BE CORRECTED.—259, 260. 1. Scarcely had Richard taken up the cross, than his admirers afforded a very notable specimen of the mischievous inequality of chivalrous ethics.-Mackintosh.

2. Some, through vainglory, seek pre-eminence over their fellows, some willing to allow equality, but not to lose what they know to be good for themselves. And this contest can only be decided by battle showing which is the stronger.-Hallam.

RULE XV.—THE PERFECT PARTICIPLE.

261. The Perfect Participle, and not the Past Tense, is used after the verbs have and be. This remark requires to be attended to in using irregular verbs, but in verbs that are regular, no mistake can arise, as both parts are the same. In nothing, we may remark, does defective scholarship sooner betray itself than in a wrong conjugation of the irregular verbs. “ They had from the beginning began to embrace opposite systems.”Goldsmith. Began ought to be begun. This rule should be particularly studied, and compared with the remarks made in paragraph 258.

262. The verbs have and be are rather liable to be confounded. “ I was come” ought to be “ I had come.” It is impossible to lay down rules for their use, but we shall give examples which should be studied carefully.

EXAMPLES,

1. They threw into the fire the property of the wretched inhabitants, into whose houses they had broken. Alison.

2. I have taken the liberty of making these remarks.-Hall.

3. The original sense of words is often driven out of use by their metaphorical acceptations.-Johnson.

4. Carthagena was taken after a dreadful siege of four months.Alison.

5. Mr Burke's health had been irretrievably broken by the death of his son.-Idem.

6. The origin of this society has been and will continue to be the subject of strenuous controversy.-Hallam.

7. See what it has built and done, what it can and will yet build and do.-Carlyle.

8. The three days allowed for sending in the returns having elapsed, the term was prolonged for eight days more.-Southey.

SENTENCES TO BE CORRECTED.-261, 262. 1. These distinguished bands scarcely appeared broke in to a discipline sufficiently strict.-Alison.

2. The pretender being returned to Scotland, he proceeded, &c.Goldsmith.

3. This illustrious princess, interesting alike for her unparalleled misfortunes and the resignation with which she had bore them.Alison.

4. Religious principle is the only power that ever has, or ever will, successfully combat the seductions of passion.-Idem.

5. When Alexander elevated the cross, he invoked the only power that ever has, or ever will, arrest the march of temporal revolution.- Idem.

6. Polygamy never has and never can be a vice of the great body of the people.Idem. 7. For melancholy had congealed my blood, And froze affection in my chilly breast.

Home's Douglas. 8. I have never seen Major Cartwright, much less enjoy the honour of his acquaintance.-Coleridge.

9. These real or imaginary treasures are vanished ; and no gold mines are now to be found in Arabia.–Gibbon.

10. I am just arrived at Geneva by a very troublesome journey. -Addison. 11. Accept, dear youth, this monument of love,

Long since, in better days, by Helen wove.

Pope.

SYNTACTICAL PARSING.

“ The power of analyzing language logically, so as to understand the principles of reasoning, is one of the most important which education can communicate.”-Arnold.

263. In treating of etymology, the pupil was taught to refer every word .separately to its part of speech, and the individuality of the word was taken as a proof that it had some distinct office to perform. Now, however, that the rules of syntax have been mastered, words may be considered in

groups, and the unity of thought be regarded more than mere uniformity of expression. That every sentence is resolvable into three parts, is a truth that has been often touched on, but as it lies at the basis of the syntax not only of the English but of every tongue, it deserves the fullest explanation and the most profound study. The three elements of which every sentence is formed, and into which it may be analyzed, are called respectively the Subject, the Predicate or Copula, and the Object. Grammarians and logicians are agreed in the use of the first and last of these terms; but the meaning attached to predicate and copula is somewhat loose. I use them thus : “ John strikes the table.”. John, subject ; strikes, predicate ; and table, object.

John is a good boy.” John, subject ; is, copula ; a good boy, predicate.

264. The subject represents the same idea as the student should be familiar with under the name of nominative, the predicate is another name for a finite verb, and the copula is the term used to indicate the nature of the verb to be ; and with the idea of the object the reader is already acquainted, as the accusative or objective. These are the main parts of every proposition, and the longest sentence is made up of propositions held together by connectives. Not only are the propositions united to one another by that class of words, but the subject, predicate, and object are often made up of a considerable number of words which are held together by the same connectives. We shall subjoin a specimen of what is meant by syntactical parsing. From the study of this perhaps greater benefits flow than from etymological parsing.

265. “ The national gratitude was liberally bestowed on the leaders in these glorious achievements.” The words before the clause in italics constitute the subject, the italics contain the predicate, and then follows the object; but the building up of the sentence may be shown to consist of the seven following processes :

1. Gratitude was bestowed.
2. National gratitude was bestowed.
3. The national gratitude was bestowed.
4. The national gratitude was liberally bestowed.

5. The national gratitudė was liberally bestowed on the leaders.

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