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6. The national gratitude was liberally bestowed on the leaders in these achievements.

7. The national gratitude was liberally bestowed on the leaders in these glorious achievements.

But again, “In Europe the ant is a very small insect; but in some warm climates it is above an inch in length, and builds a hill from ten to twelve feet high.” There are three propositions in this sentence. (1.) The ant is an insect; (2.) The ant is an inch ; and (3.) The ant builds a hill. Each of these propositions is modified, that is, extended or restricted in meaning, before it is connected with the other. Thus, to consider the first one, the main sentence is, (1.) The ant is an insect. It may be conceived to be extended in some such way as this : (2.) The ant is a small insect ; (3.) The ant is a very small insect ; (4.) In Europe the ant is a very small insect. This completes the building up (construction) of the first proposition ; let us now see how the second is managed. As we analyzed the sentence, it stood thus : (1.) The ant is an inch. The process of development may be represented thus : (2.) Thę ant is an ich in length; (3.) The ant is above an inch in length ; (4.) In some warm climates (we shall not be at the trouble to analyze this compound phrase for the present) the ant is above an inch in length. The clause is now complete within itself, but it has to be united to the former clause; and as the ideas expressed by the two are of a somewhat opposite nature, the adversative “but” is the conjunction employed. When the two clauses are thus brought closely together there is found to be a repetition of the word “ ant,” and the neuter pronoun is substituted instead of the latter “ ant” on the principle which has been already fully explained. The third proposition in our original analysis remains to be spoken of: it is this,-(1.) The ant builds a hill; (2.) The ant builds a high hill; (3.) The ant builds a hill from-ten-to-twelve feet high. The third proposition has to be connected to the second, and as the succeeding in some measure arises out of the preceding, the copulative “ and” is used; and, for the dy mentioned, the pronoun

“ it” is substituted. 266. Such is the analysis of, comparatively speaking, a simple sentence. It takes a long time to represent the whole process that the mind goes through when we utter such a sentence intelligently and consciously; but real grammatical knowledge is not attained till the pupil see the relative bearing of every word upon another in a clause, the effect of every clause on the proposition of which it is a part, and the connexion between the different propositions of which every sentence is made up. It is not the grammarian's province to carry his pupil farther. The bearing of sentence upon sentence, and the development of one truth from another, belong to the higher province of the logician, and with a pupil so trained his task would be “ delightful” indeed.


267. The converse process—synthesis—may now be exhibited ; that is, separate propositions may be given, and the pupil taught to connect them into a consistent whole. The sentences should be simple ; (201) that is, contain one finite verb, and the nature of the connexion existing between the different propositions expressed by appropriate connectives.

1. The-sepoy’s-profession gives him the precedency to (persoħs-engaged-in-civil-occupations =) civilians.

2. The sepoy has precedency in general estimation. 3. The sepoy has precedency in the estimation of his caste. 4. The sepoy's pay is considerable. 5. The sepoy's pay raises him in station and enjoyment. 6. The sepoy's pay raises him far above his brethren.

7. The sepoy has left his brethren behind him in his native village.

268. On reading propositions 1 and 2, we see that 2 modifies the assertion in 1, " has precedency,” by the clause “ in general estimation.” Proposition 3 asserts something that we would have scarcely expected from the preceding 2. We would not have expected both things to be equally true, but they are so; the one not less than” the other. Assertion 4 is connected with 2 and 3 in the way of cause and effect. What raises men in the estimation of their fellows ? Pay; and this is so well understood, that there is no necessity for being very careful to indicate the operation of cause and effect. The most general connective will unite 3 and 4 sufficiently well. Proposition 5 shadows forth the degree to which 4 is meant to extend. 4 is true to the extent that 5 follows out of it. Assertion 6 modifies 5. The latter (5) asserts in general that the pay raises the sepoy in a certain way; but 6 guards this assertion by the limiting clause “ above his brethren.” Having introduced the word “ brethren,” we are anxious to know something about them, and assertion 7 is added to gratify this curiosity. It is, however, quite subordinate, and may therefore be introduced by a relative. Such is the sort of connexion subsisting between the different sentences; and when they are put into one sentence by means of connectives, that is conjunctions, prepositions, and pronouns, we should have the same facts actually told, but the more important standing out from those of less consequence. The original of the sentence is from Alison, and stands thus : “ The sepoy's profession gives him the precedency, not less in general estimation than in that of his caste, to persons engaged in civil occupations; and his pay is so considerable, as to raise him, both in station and enjoyment, far above his brethren whom he has left behind in his native village.”

EXERCISE. Analyze the following passages into simple sentences according to the example given in 265 :

1. Alfred lay here concealed, but not inactive, during a twelvemonth; when the news of a prosperous event reached his ears, and called him to the field. Hubba, the Dane, having spread devastation, fire, and slaughter over Wales, had landed in Devonshire from twenty-three vessels, and laid siege to the castle of Kinwith, a place situated the mouth of the small river Tau.-Hume.

2. In a desultory and almost garrulous strain, Bentley pours forth an immense store of novel learning and of acute criticism, especially on his favourite subject, which was destined to become his glory, the scattered relics of the ancient dramatists. The style of Bentley, always terse and lively, sometimes humorous and drily sarcastic, whether he wrote in Latin or English, could not but augment the admiration which his learning challenged.Hallam. 3. Fame is the spur that the clear spirit doth raise

(That last infirmity of noble minds)
To scorn delights, and live laborious days ;

But the fair guerdon when we hope to find,
5 And think to burst out into sudden blaze,

Comes the blind fury, with the abhorred shears,
And slits the thin-spun life. But not the praise,

Phoebus replied and touched my trembling ear;

Fame is no plant that grows on mortal soil,
10 Nor in the glistering foil set off to the world,

Nor in broad rumour lies ;
But lives, and spreads aloft by those pure eyes,
And perfect witness of all-judging Jove;

As he pronounces lastly on each deed, 15 Of so much fame in heaven expect thy meed.* Milton. * As preparatory to the exercise, I would recommend that the class or pupil be examined viva voce on the meaning and structure of the passage, in some such way as this :- What is the subject in the first line ? Spur, what case? What part of speech is that? Meaning of clear? How comes it to have such a meaning? The second line, considered as a whole, is what part of speech? With wḥat is it in apposition ? Any thing objectionable about its position ? By what verb is to scorn governed ? What part of the verb is live? 'How? Days, what case? How? Explain the use of but and and in lines 4 and 5. Guerdon, what case ? Any remark to make as to the word itself? Its derivation ? Its position? Of whom or what is “think to burst out into sudden blaze" asserted ? Fury, what case ? Why blind? Any thing to remark as to the position of fury? Is shears singular or plural ? Line 7. Is slits used in its general acceptation here? Why thin-spun life? Why is but used ? Praise, what case? Why? Line 8. Which is the transitive and which the intransitive verb? Trembling ear, why ? Line 9. On what principle is that here preferred to which ? The two meanings of the word mortal? Give instances of each. Line 10. Foil, what? What word applies to “set off ?" Line 11. Broad rumour, why? What sort of verb is lies? What other verb is apt to be confounded with it? State the distinction between them. Line 13. Two meanings of the word witness? What do you call that mark between all and judging? Another name for Jove? Line 14. Is each properly used here ? Line 15. To what word does so refer? Meed ? Put the last line into prose order.

By subjecting a pupil to an examination of this sort before he is required to analyze the sentence, his task is rendered much more easy. I have confined myself to strictly grammatical questions, but to the complete appreciation of such passages, many historical and other allusions must be cleared up, and in this way the pupil may be led by easy steps from mere grammatical points to the higher region of æsthetics.

No assertion of a merely educational kind, that I have met with in the writings of the justly admired and revered Arnold, has astonished me so much as one which he somewhere makes, to the effectthat no searching examination of students can be made on a modern poet. This is surely pedantry, utterly unworthy of a scholar who was equally at home in ancient and modern learning. None knew better than Arnold that the man who can truly rise to the height of Milton's

great argument,” will not find himself overtasked to understand Homer, and that he who has held high converse with Shakspeare will not be greatly out in following the flights of Euripides.


Perform the converse operation—that of synthesis—on the following propositions, according to the example given in 267 :4.-1. Alfred was obliged to relinquish the ensigns of his dignity,

2. Alfred was obliged to dismiss his servants.
3. Alfred was obliged to seek shelter from the pursuit and

fury of his enemies.
4. Alfred had to practise mean disguises. [One sentence.]
5. Alfred concealed himself under a peasant's habit.
6. Alfred lived some time in the house of a neatherd.
7. The neatherd had been intrusted with the care of his cows.

[Another sentence.] 8. An incident passed here. 9. The incident has been recorded by all the historians. 10. The incident was long preserved by popular tradition. 11. The incident contains nothing remarkable in itself. 12. Every circumstance is interesting. 13. Every circumstance attends so much virtue and dignity. 14. Virtue and dignity are reduced to such distress.

[Third sentence.] (The original of the above is from Hume's History of England.) 5. 1. Alnascar was entirely swallowed up in his vision.

2. Alnascar could not avoid acting with his foot,
3. Alnascar had something in his thoughts.
4. Unluckily, Alnascar struck his basket of brittle ware.
5. The basket was the foundation of all his grandeur.
6. Alnascar kicked his basket to a great distance from him.
7. Alnascar kicked his basket into the street.
8. Alnascar broke the glasses into ten thousand pieces.

(The original is from Addison.)


269. To write any language correctly implies something more than observing the rules of syntax. Two other points require to be attended to, namely, that the words employed belong really to the language and to the present use of the language spoken ; and, second, that they be used in their appropriate sense. A word not English is termed a barbarism, and when used in a sense different from its established one, it is called an impropriety. The former rarely appear in authors considered reputable, but very good writers give a wrong sense to words. We cannot here enter

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