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12. I, who have had abundant opportunities of observing the poor, know such conclusions to be erroneous; they are the deductions of selfishness, or of a limited and unfavourable observance derived from, &c.—Wade.

13. In one conclusion all agree, namely, that vast and concrete masses of people have suddenly grown up in a state of gross ignorance.-Idem.

274. We have now concluded the subject of Syntax, and if we have thus far succeeded in carrying the pupil along with us, he should be capable of unravelling the most complicated sentences; by way of test, we subjoin two additional sets of exercises—the first correct. In the examples composing this set, many words are in italics, and of these we wish the pupil to give an account—what they are—what inflection they have undergone—what they affect-how they are affected, &c. In the second set, we wish him to point out what is wrong, and to correct it ; assigning a reason for the correction, and referring it to some of the principles laid down in the Syntax. But we wish him not merely to assign a reason for his own correction, but if possible to trace the error to its source, remembering that Herschel's remark holds good in grammar as in every thing else,—“ Error is only effectually to be confounded by searching deep and tracing it to its source.”—Discourse, &c. p. 9.

SENTENCES TO BE ANALYZED AND CONSTRUED. 1. It is the undoubted right of every society to exclude from its communion and benefits such among its members as reject or violate those regulations which have been established by general consent. Gibbon.

2. At the blast of the trumpet, angels, genii, and men will arise. -Idem.

3. Talfi has given rather a long analysis of this treatise.Hallam.

4. Learning was employed in systematic analyses of ancient or modern forms of government.--Idem.

5. The formula of letters and radical signs, &c.Idem.

6. Protestants were in some places excluded from the court; a penalty which tended much to bring about the reconversion of a poor and proud nobility.-Idem.

7. Hooker, like most great moral writers both of antiquity and of modern ages, rests his positions on one solid basis, the eternal obligation of natural law.- Idem,

8. Tennemann, with whose Manuel de la Philosophie alone I am conversant, is supposed to have gone very deeply into the subject in his larger history of philosophy.Idem.

9. The partizans of democracy alleged that the whole misfortunes of Europe, and all the crimes of France, had arisen from the iniquitous coalition of kings to overturn its ancient freedom.-Alison.

10. The clergy in these valleys had unbounded influence over their flocks.-Idem.

11. The decisive crisis was now approaching : every moment was precious; the fate of Europe hung in the balance, suspended almost even; a feather would make (?) it incline either way. Both parties now adopted equally bold resolutions; and it was hard to say which would be first pierced to the heart in the desperate thrusts that were about to be exchanged.—Idem.

12. Like all men of a sound intellect, an ardent disposition, and a feeling heart, Mr Burke was strongly attached to the principles of freedom.-Idem.

13. The greatest error of all the rest is, the mistaking or misplacing of the last or furthest end of knowledge : for men have entered into a desire of learning and knowledge, sometimes upon a natural curiosity, an inquisitive appetite; sometimes to entertain their minds with variety and delight; sometimes for ornament and reputation ; and sometimes to enable them to victory of wit and contradiction, and most times for lucre and profession; and seldom sincerely to give a true account of the gift of their reason to the benefit and use of men; as if there were sought in knowledge a couch whereupon to rest a searching and restless spirit, or a terrace for a wandering and variable mind to walk up and down with a fair prospect, or a tower of state for a proud mind to raise itself upon, or a fort or commanding ground for strife and contention, or a shop for profit or sale, and not a rich store-house for the glory of the Creator, and the relief of man's estate.-Bacon's Advancement of Learning.

14. Would I then withhold the Bible from the cottager and the artisan? Heaven forefend! The fairest flower that ever clomb up a cottage window is not so fair a sight to my eyes as the Bible gleaming through the lower panes. Let it be but read, as by such men it used to be read; when they came to it as to a ground covered with manna, even the bread which the Lord had given his people to eat ; when he that gathered much had nothing over, and he that gathered little had no lack.-Coleridge.

15. Justice is itself the great standing policy of civil society, and any eminent departure from it, under any circumstances, lies under the suspicion of being no policy at all.Burke.

16. The phenomena of nature, indeed, in all their possible combinations, are so infinite, in a popular sense of the word, that during no period to which the human species can be conceived to reach, would they be entirely collected and registered. The case is still stronger as to the secret agencies and processes by means of which their phenomena are displayed.-Hallam.


(From Gibbon's Decline and Fall, fc.) 1. Of the nineteen tyrants who started up under the reign of Gallienus, there was not one who enjoyed a life of peace or a natural death.

2. Encompassed with domestic conspiracy, military sedition, and civil war, they trembled on the edge of precipices, in which, after a longer or shorter term of anxiety, they were inevitably lost.

3. Some were employed in blowing of glass, others in weaving of linen, others again manufacturing the papyrus.

4. The principal conquests of the Romans were atchieved under the republic.

5. It was not evident what deity or what form of worship they had substituted to the gods and temples of antiquity.

6. The most trifling occasion, a transient scarcity of flesh or lentils, the neglect of an accustomed salutation, a mistake of precedency in the public baths, or even a religious dispute, were at any time sufficient to kindle a sedition.

7. They were all equally animated by the same exclusive zeal and by the same abhorrence for idolatry.

8. It was inferred that this long period of labour, which was now almost elapsed, would be succeeded by a joyful sabbath.

9. Their mutual charity and unsuspecting confidence has been remarked by infidels, and was too often abused by perfidious friends.

10. Their language or their silence equally discover their contempt for the growing sect.

11. To illustrate the obscure monuments of the life and death of each individual [nineteen), would prove a laborious task, alike barren of instruction and amusement.

(From Hallam's Introduction to the Literature of Europe.) 12. His sentences never end aukwardly, or with a wrong arrangement of words.

13. It is uncertain whether or not the compiler were an English


14. Cudworth has passed more for a recorder of ancient philosophy than for one who might stand in a respectable class among philosophers; and his work, though long, being unfinished, as well as full of digression, its object has not been fully apprehended.

15. The pregnancy and acuteness of his observations under each head silences all criticism of the kind.

16. It had already been adapted to dramatic representation in chorusses.

17. We know little individually of his hearers.

18. The admiration of this great poem was unanimous and enthusiastic.

(From Alison's History of Europe, &c.) 19. Such was the enthusiasm in his favour, that the innkeepers refused to accept any thing from him for their entertainment.

20. He was not merely illustrious on account of his vast military achievements, but from his varied and often salutary civil efforts.

21. There were to be seen the rival genius of Pitt and Fox which shook the British senate, &c.

22. But in proportion to the rapidity with which agricultural wealth, like vegetation, thus spring up under the warmth of an eastern sun, is the fragile nature, &c.

23. The superiority of arms, or the power of knowledge, have sometimes given the civilisation of refined, a temporary advantage over the courage of barbarous states.

24. The public stores were shamefully dilapidated by private cupidity.

25. Domestic society is the seminary of social affections, the cradle of sensibility, where the first elements are acquired of that tenderness and humanity which cement mankind together; and which, were they entirely extinguished, the whole fabric of social institutions would be dissolved.-Hall.

26. The origin of so happy an innovation is one of the most interesting objects of inquiry which occurs in human affairs.Mackintosh.

27. The ostrich makes use of both legs and wings to assist its motion.-Goldsmith.

28. A surprising phænomena happened this year in Italy.-Idem.

29. The ardour of patriotism, the thirst of military glory, the enthusiasm of liberty, decline with the rising grandeur and opulence of the nation ; and an enthusiasm succeeds of another species.Tytler.

30. Claudius was a man of weak intellects and of no education. - Idem.

31. Edward, finding Baliol the most obsequious and the least formidable of the two competitors, soon after gave judgment in his favour.-Robertson.


275. Syntax treats of the arrangement of words as well as their government; but in an uninflected language like ours there is not much room for variety. As in the use of individual words there is no reason why father should have been the sign or combination of signs invented to represent the sound we give to it; or again, why that sound should stand for the idea which it represents ; so, in wishing to convey the idea that “ my father is a kind man,” there is no reason why father should occupy the place it does. It might have been father my is a kind man, or a kind man is my father. Different nations differ not less in their arrangement of vocables than in their invention and employment of them. There is, however, what has been called a natural and a rhetorical order. Our language, and indeed most modern tongues, follow the natural or logical order; whereas the Greek and Latin followed the rhetorical. They were fitted to do so from their structure. In Latin we can say,Darium vicit Alexander, or Alexander vicit Darium, with equal propriety ; but if the relative position of Alexander and Darius be changed in English, we should pervert the truth of history. We already asserted that our language was superior to Latin in having an uninflected adjective. It is not an unmixed advantage, however, as it compels us to place our adjective in a certain position with respect to its noun; while in Latin its form sufficiently indicates the word to which it belongs. When we read in Milton

Who now enjoys thee credulous, all gold,
Who always vacant, always amiable,
Hopes thee, of flattering gales


Te are at a loss to know what credulous, vacant, &c. qualify ; but in the original of Horace no such ambiguity exists.

Qui nunc te fruitur credulus aurea,
Qui semper vacuam, semper amabilem

Sperat, nescius auræ fallacis. 276. Instead of attempting to explain further than we have already incidentally done the arrangement of words in

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