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IIardly escap'd th' Iberian chain,

not think his posthumous labour lost, Instant destruction threats again : if it divert L. Buchan, The L. is Nor can Britannia's faithful aid Protect thee from this dangerous maid ; that which ever of the spouses is plea

written with mysterious intention, For where her conqu’ring charms asail, Nor arms nor couniel can avail.

fed with it, may accept the compli. Struck by th' artillery of her eye ment from the deceased, who from 'Tis vain to fight, too late to fly; his regard for them, still feels the In one promilcuous ruin, all

truth of what Virgil delivered long Protectors, and protected, fall.

ago, that whatever strong prepossesThe umquile S. J. is heartily tired fions a person had will alive, Eadem of writing so long. If the reader be fequitur tellure repostos. kalf so tired, it will be wished he had From the environs of the Aile rested quietly in his grave; but will at Colinton Church.

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SOME ACCOUNT OF THE LATE MATTHEW YOUNG, D. D. LORD BISHOP OF

CLOXFERT AND KILMACDUACH.

ᎠᏒ

R Young was of a respectable and in the formation of which Dr

family in the county of Rof- Young was also actively engaged: common; was admitted into the U. and this became itself the germ of riversity of Dublin in 1766, and elec- the Royal Irish Academy; which ted fellow of the college in 1775. In owes its existence to the zeal and exthe prosecution of that object, his ertions of the members of that focieattention was necessarily directed to ty, among whom Dr Young was parthe Newtonian philosophy, of which ticularly distinguished. In the interhe early became an enthusiastic ad. vals of his feverer studies he applied mirer; and displayed, at the exami- himself to modern languages; and nation for his fellowship, a knowledge was competently skilled in French, and comprehension of it unexampled. Spanish, and Italian. But he be- . It continued to be his favourite, but stowed more pains on one less genernot his only atudy. His active mind ally studied, on account of its diffieinbraced in rapid successions the culty, even in the country where it molt diffimilar objects; and thefe he is spoken by the native inhabitants. pursued with uncealing eagerness, a. The controversy about the poems of midst his various duties as a fellow Offian induced him to learn Irish, and tutor; and the freeft intercourse for the purpose of enabling himself with fociety, which he was formed to judge of its merits ; and he spent at once to delight and instruci. Biis a summer in Scotland with the same love of literary conversation, and the view. The result of his enquiries advantages he experienced from it in may be seen in the Transactions of the pursuit of science, led him early the R. I. A. to which he also conto engage in forming a fociety whose tributed largely on mathematical and principal object was the improve. philofophical subjects. In the first incut of its inembers in theological volume of their transactions ; a synthelearning. It consisted of a 1mall tical Demonstration of the Rule for szumber of his most intimate college- the Quadrature of simple Curves per friends, and continued to exist for a Aquationes Terminorum Numero inseries of years, with equal reputa- finitas ; On the Extraction of cubic tion and advantage. Out of this af- and other Roots; Ancient Gaelic fociation grew another somewhat Poems respecting the Race of the more extensive, whose labours were Frians collected in the Highlands. dirceed to philofophical researches, ir Vol. II. An Enquiry into the different Modes of Demonstration by he could return to it, the dreadful which the Velocity of spouting Fluids malady had commenced, under which has been investigated á prisri. In he languihed for 15 months, and Vol. III. The Origin and Theory of whose fatal termination we have the Gothic Arch. In Vol. IV. De- now' to deplore. He died at Whitmonstration of Newton's Theorems worth, in Lancashire, Nov. 28. 1800, for the Correction of spherical Errors in the goth year of his age. In the in the Object-glasses of Telescopes. midst of his sufferings, his ardour for In the Vth and VIth nothing. In science was unabated. Cut off from 1786, when the profefforship of na. the intercourse and business of societural and experimental philofophy in ty, he continued his studies with an Trinity college became vacant, he activity scarcely credible. During had attained to so high a reputation his confinement last winter in Dubin that branch of science, that he lin, he prepared for the press an Awas elected to the office without op- nalylis of his Lectures, which was pofition. His “Essay on Sounds” accordingly printed, and every fhect had been published fome years; and of it corrected by himself. In the he was known to be engaged in the same period, he made himself master arduous task of illustrating the Prin- of Syriac, with a view to improve cipia of Newton. He now devoted and perfect a new Version of the himself to the duties of his professor- Psalms, on which he had been emmip; and the munificence of the then ployed for some time, and which is primate (Robinson) having enriched nearly, if not entirely ready for pubthe philosophical school of the col. lication. He amused himielf, at inlege with the donation of Mr At- tervals, with an Essay on Sophuisms wood's admirable apparatus, Dr (of which he exemplified the differYoung, (for in that year he proceed. ent claffes from the works of the ed D. D.) had a fortunate occasion, deistical writers,) and with adding which he improved with the most in- to his Notes on a favourite Latin defatigable attention, of carrying his Poet, of whom he had thoughts of lectures in experimental philofophy publishing a new edition. His last to a degree of perfection unknown in labours, after he had removed to the university of Dublin, and never Whitworth, were devoted to an experhaps exceeded in any other. He amination of the Principles on which proceeded in the mean time with his the existence of God may be mos great work, “ The Method of Prime unexceptionably demonstrated: and and Ultimate Ratios, illustrated by a it is to be hoped that his papers

different passionately * A cancer in the mouth and tongue- Editor.

will Commentary on the two first Books be found to contain the argument as of the Principia,” and had nearly completed by himself. From the li

. completed it in English, when he was beral spirit of the present governors advised by his friends to publish it in of Trinity-college, and their affecLatin. He readily acquiesced, and tion for the memory of their late afthus had an opportunity, while trans. fociate, there is reason to expect, lating it, of revising the whole, and that his valuable MSS. will become rendering it fuller and more perfect. the property of that fociety, and be It was finished a year or two before ushered into the world with every his appointment to the fee of Clon- advantage. To his literary acquirefert, at which time he was engaged ments he added no inconsiderable in preparing for its publication. His share of polite accomplishments. He attention was unavoidably diverted was skilled in music as a science, and from it by the occupations attending not ignorant of the practice. Though so important a charge ; and before never instructed in drawing, he was passionately fond of landscape ; and, principal secretary, on being consultin the course of his residence for two ed who was the properett person to or three summers in North Wales, fill the vacant see, may be called foattempted some sketches, which an lioitation. His report was, that “he eminent artist (Ashford) thought not believed Dr Young to be the most unworthy of the finishing strokes of distinguished literary character in the his pencil. He was an accomplished kingdom;" and he was recommended botanist ; and one of the highest gra- accordingly. tifications he had promised himself In Dr Young science has loft one from his removal to Clonfert, was of its brightest luminaries ; religion a the opportunity it would afford him fincere and powerful advocate ; his to explore new regions. The writer country its proudest boast and ornaof this article was an eye-witness of ment; and his friends all that could the transport with which he discovers command esteem and conciliate afed that the Rosa Eglant grew wild fection, The versatility of his tain the hedges of the demesne. lents, the acuteness of his intellect, Sed fugit interea, fugit irreparabile and his intense application to study, terapus,

were happily blended with a native Singula dum capti circumvectamur a.

circumvectamur a. unaffuming modesty ; a fimplicity of more."

manners unaffected and irresistibly The circumstances of his promo: engaging ; a cheerfulness and vivacition to the episcopal bench reflect ty that knew no bounds but those of equal honour on himself and the no. innocence; a heart throbbing with the ble person who recommended him to warm feelings of private friendship his Majesty. It was a favour as un. and general philanthropy; and a firm folicited as unexpected, unless the re- and inflexible {pirit of honour and inport made to his Excellency by his tegrity.

SITUATION OF THE BORDERS AND HIGHLANDS AT THE COMMENCEMENT

OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.

From Laing's History of Scotland, val. I.

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THE inhabitants situate on the con. Without the virtues of either, they

fines of the two kingdoms, and seemed to unite the vices of a barbasubject to the regular jurisdiction of rous and more civilized state ; their neither, were fierce, rapacious, and valour, exercised in constant warfare, 'turbulent ; and under an imperfect was long regarded as the defence of species of military authority, exerted Scotland; and in a pastoral country, by their wardens, were still divided where all were horfemen, when the into fepts or tribes, unaccustomed to beacons announced an hostile incurlaws and inured to rapine. Their ha- fion, ten thousand have assembled on bits were averse to industry, and im- horseback in the space of a day t. patient of labour; their fields, expo. But their valour was dangerous when sed to the incursions of the English, excited by the turbulent nobles, had remained uncultivated, and their troublesome from the frequent intersubsistence was chiefly derived from ruptions of peace with England ; and indiscriminate pillage. Their morals the government despairing hitherto were licentious ; theft, robbery, and of their civilization, was satisfied if murder were honourable; perjury, able to repress their insolence, and adultery, and inceft, familiar crimes*. impofe a partial restraint on their de

predations. * State Papers, MS. vol. iii. Nicolson's Border Laws, p. 115. † Lely’s Scotiae Descriptio, P. 5.-De Mor. Scot. p. 59. Major's Hift. p. 20.

predations. Their civilization was they possessed a correct taste, a poattempted, when, in consequence of lished diction, a cultivated and subthe accesiion, they had cealed to be lime poetry, enriched with the choiceft formidable. To prevent their depre. images of classical antiquity, and indations, arins and the use of horses termixed with all the sentimental afwere vainly interdicted. To reduce fectation of the present times. Their them under the coercion of the laws, history contains no marks of primeval the most desperate were conducted refinement, unless we can persuade by Buccleugh to the Belgic wars; ourselves, that their descendants, as the moit criminal or unfortunate were soon as they approached observation, extirpated by the cruel policy of the degenerated on emerging from the Earl of Dunbar. The wafte, though savage state, and became more barfertile lands on the borders, began barous in proportion as they became then to be cultivated ; the debateable more civilized. The virtues of a gelands, an asylum hitherto for thieves nerous hospitality, attachment to their and outlaws, were divided and appro- leaders, fidelity to their associates, priated to each kingdom; and a tribe they shared in common with other of Grahams, from their crimes pecu- barbarians ; but they inherited also liarly obnoxious to justice, were ex. the vices of barbarians; an incurable pelled from their habitations on the Noth; an intemperance unrestrained banks of the Elk, and transported to except by their wants ; a perfidy that Ireland *. The severity of thofe re. disregarded the common obligations gulations was fufficient to restrain de. of oaths ; a proverbial rapacity, and predations, hoftilities, and outrage- the most fanguinary revenge. The ous violence, but many years of pro- rights of property were contemned as, gresiive improvement were necessary on the borders; and as there, the to reduce the borders under a proper principal fagacity was exerted in subjection to the laws.

concealing or inveitigating the minute The Highlands were less acceslible traces of their mutual depredations. to improvement, and less submissive Their revenge was more comprehento government. Separated by their five and horrible ; and not unfremountains, and divided by a peculiar quently a family, a village, or a small language from the rest of Scotland, tribe, beset by night in their habitathe natives have continued a distinct, tions, or inclosed in church, have and unmixed race, and preserved the been consumed with flames f. Their genuine, unadulterated remains of the valour was desultory ; not inferior to ancient Celts, to whose dress and that of the borderers. They delighted manners there is nothing similar in irregular attacks, or a precipitate among the Gothic nations of Europe. onset ; their defensive arms were a The productions of the Celtic muse buckler, and light corfelet of leather ; would persuade us to ascribe to their their offensive, a large dagger, a early manners, a civilization incon. battle axe, or a broad and maffy histent with an utter ignorance of the sword, which they wielded with a arts of life; an uniform heroism un- vigorous and irresistible arm. Their known to barbarians; a gallantry dress was simple, parfimonious, and which chivalry never inspired; a hu- uniform ; a short velt, and a loose and manity which refinement has never variegated plaid, whose extremity was equalled ; and to believe, that before fastened around th: loins; and if detheir advance to the shepherd itate, cency were consulted, however imEd. Mag. Feb. 1801.

perfectly, * Stow Chr. 819. Johnston, P. 374, 414, 39, 93. Grotii Hift. lib. xiv. + See Johnson's Journey to the Weitern Inands, vol. x. of his works, p. 367–

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perfectly, in their national dress, their neighbouring tribes or the sovereign limbs remained uncovered, and

expo

himself. fed to a rigorous climate *. It is im- Their coercion had been attempted possible to ascertain the period or the ineffectually, by such regulations as a origin of their confederation into nation imposes on the lavage hordes clans, whose antiquity ascends beyond that infect its frontiers. Hostages their historical, or even fabulous tra- were exacted from each chieftain, ditions. In every barbarous and dis- whose lives were responsible for his tracted country, the same necessities peaceable demeanor ; for the comof defence and protection have created pensation of losses sustained from the small and subordinate confederacies; clan; and the surrender of public ofbut in the highlands they acquired a fenders to justice. Wherever the clan folidity, the chieftain a patriarchal protected or harboured robbers, the authority, the people a fubmiffive at- individuals were indiscriminately aptachment to his person, which the prehended, and their effects confisfeudal times had no tendency to in- cated or secured till restitution was fpire. The inequalities of birth and made I. Regulations not susceptible fortune operate irresistibly in the shep- of a strict execution must have failed herd statet. The animofities that di- to intimidate, and the licentious fpirit vided the clans, attached them to their of those fierce mountaineers remained chieftains, whose authority was never unsubdued. A memorable example, eclipsed nor restrained by the presence the severe and almost entire extirpaof a superior; and after the introduction of the Macgregors, was more tion of surnames, when the clans had efficacious. The district of Lennox, adopted the name or patronymick as- had been repeatedly ravaged, and the sumed by their chieftain, they be- Colquhouns, in different engagements, lieved and propagated with credulous defeated and slaughtered by that mis. satisfaction, their common descent chievous clan. On the approach of from the loins of his progenitors. the Earls of Argyle and Huntly, the Thence proceeded an inviolable at. latter abandoned their habitations in tachment to his person, cherished on despair. The clan retired with their his part by a rude hospitality, main- wives and children to

caves and tained by them in his adverse fortune, forests, resumed the habits of savage notwithitanding every temptation to life ; and in wandering or committing desert, or punishment if they refused depredations through the highlands, to betray their chieftain. Loyalty, were pursued and consumed, by the was always a secondary paflion, fu- sword in summer, by famine in winter, bordinate to the allegiance due to Their chieftain surrendered, on assutheir chieftain, who protected or en rance of being transported beyond the couraged their private depredations, realm ; but the condition was literally and whose banners they followed im- fulblled, or rather perfidiously evaded plicitly, whether directed against by the privy-council; and he was first

conducted

* Major's Hift. 34. Lesly, 53, 5. Braccae, or trowsers of tartan, have been erroneously considered as their more ancient dress. But Gallia Braccata was peopled with Germans, or Beigic Gauls, from whose Gothic dress, contrasted with rhe Celtic in Aquitain and Gallia Celtica, it derived its name. Pinkerton on the Scythians and Goths, p. 84. 146. Lesly, who mistakes the plaid (chlamys ) for the braccae, acknowledges their femoralia fimplicifama, pudori quam frigori aptiora. Major describes their dress more concisely. A medio crure ad pedem caligas non habent; chlamyde pro veste superiore, et camisia, crocu tincta, amiciuntur.

+ Smith's Wealth of Nations, vol. iii. p. 77.
| Parl. 1581, ch. 112. 158 5, ch. 16. 1587, ch. 93. 1594, ch. 231.

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