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had hid themselves in Arabia deserta, and thence might have got into Syria or Egypt, see Le Clerc.

10. Thus also let those fay, &c. *17. The first fixteen verses seem to relate to the eaptivity from which the Jews had now returned.

The Psalmist proceeds to give instances of constant operation of the divine goodness.

20. :25944. Kennicott and the versions.

25. And raiseth.may signifies to stand up or arise, 1 Chron. xx. 4. Esth. iv. 14. II. xlvii. 13. Secker.

29. To stand filent.- pr should probably be aw", as verse

33, 35. Secker.
Waves of the sea.-5974). Syr. and Hare.
36-40. The

poor and the great are equally subject to the influence of God's providence. In verse 39. the Targum inserts, but when they fin, by way of explanation. Mudge reads “ whereas they, meaning the others mentioned verses 33, 34. can scarcely allow a word which is understood, to be emphatical.

43.. ningun. Syr. and Kennicott.
43: All the versions, Kennicott, Street, Dathe.

But we

PS A L M CIX.

2. The mouth of the wicked and the mouth of the deceitful are opened against him: they have spoken against me with a lying tongue. And when he had urged his love and his good actions to these

enemies of his, v. 4, then follow the evil wishes they expressed against him to v. 20. And at length v. 27. he says, let them curse, but bless thou.” To this we may add, that David speaks of his enemies throughout the Psalm in the plural number, whereas the object of the inspiration is but one person.

4. Unto prayer.-When my enemies persecute, I do not indulge myself in a vindictive fpirit, but betake myself to prayer to God for them; ego tamen orabam

pro

iis. Syriac. It was the custom for the accuser to stand at the right hand of the person whom he accused, Zech.

iii. I.

7. ben deprecatio. Kennicott.

10. Cast out.--Ex@an Ingwoav, lxx. Vulg. 10984; and Houbigant approves this rightly. Secker.

16. He remembered not.—This is one of the lying accusations against David, mentioned in verse 2.

20. This is the reward, &c.—This is the recompence which mine adversaries wish me from the Lord, in return for my kindness towards them, fee verse 4.

23. Shaw in his Travels, tells us, that the swarms of locusts are driven to and fro by the wind, p. 165. And Niebuhr says, that the people drive them about from place to place, to prevent their settling any where, p. 176.

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It is probable that the particular occasion of the writing of this Psalm was as follows: After David ute , had been proclaimed king over all Ifrael, 2 Sam. br

v. 5. by the command of God himself, the divine $ spirit having signified to him his future greatness

and victories, he composed this Psalm which he caused to be sung in his presence at Hebron. It is dramatic like many other of the psalms. The four first verses are sung by one part of the choir, which speaks of Jehovah in the third person, addressing the people: the latter three are sung by the. other set of choirifters, as addressing Jehovah, and answering the first set, in the manner of antiphony.

1. My Lord.The king, fee i Sam. xvi. 16. xxii. 12. 2 Sam. xi. 11. 1 Kings i. 13, 17, 31.

and

particularly, 2 Sam. iv. 8. Some persons, perhaps, says M. Masson, may think that no other person than David can be supposed to speak in this Psalm, because he was the writer of it. But such persons, continues Masson, must be little acquainted with dramatic poetry. Besides it is a common thing for the Jews to speak of themselves in the third person, see Gen, iv. 23, 24, so also Pf. cxxxii. 1, 10, 11.

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and If. i. 1. Jerem. i. 1. Dan. i. 6. Compare likewife Pf. xx. and xxi. of which David is on all hands allowed to be the author.

1. To my Lord.—The Messiah, Matth. xxii. 43, 44, and the passages.

It seems to me, that this Psalm has not an historical sense with respect to David, but is a direct and exclusive prophecy of the Messiah. Abp. Newcome.

That this is a direct and exclufive prophecy of Christ will appear; first, from its being proved that it does not apply to David or Solomon or any person before their time; and secondly, that it has been accurately fulfilled in Christ, in every part; as will be shewn in the subsequent

This Psalm is not applicable to David; first, because David is the author of it, but the person of whom David writes was bis Lord, see v. 1. fecondly, the person spoken of was a priest (Cohen), but David was not a priest; thirdly, this Psalm is not applic-hle to Solomon; first, because he was not a priest (Cohen); secondly, his office bore no resemblance to that of Melchizedec; thirdly, he was a man of peace, not a conqueror. Therefore this Psalm is neither applicable to David nor any cotemporary person; nor neither is it applicable to Abraham or any person before the time of David, as is evident from the mention of Sion which was not a place of any note, nor the seat of empire, until

notes.

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