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command of Sir William Phipps, their governor ; who alfo twice attempted the reduction of Quebec, but failed by being too late in the feafon. However, during the wars of King William, the French and Indians gained many advantages over the English, having recovered Port Royal and the other countries they had formerly ufurped. In the wars of Queen Anne, Port Royal was again retaken, and called Annapolis; and an expedition was fet on foot against Quebec. The fleet from Old England was under admiral Walker, with a body of troops under general Hill, who were to approach the place by the river of St Lawrence, while general Nicholson, with the New England forces, were to attack Montreal, and fo divide the French force. This expedition alfo failed; and the peace of Utrecht following foon after, the French relinquished Nova Scotia, the bay of Fundy, and other places.

Then they applied themfelves to extend their fettlements about the lakes, and meet thofe making about the Miffifippi; and also built and fortified the town of Louisburg and the island of Cape Breton, which gave them the command of the gulph of St Lawrence, and greatly difturbed the New England trade. This town was taken, in 1745, by the New England men, and restored to the French in 1748. It was finally taken in 1758; and, in the following year, the English army, under General Wolfe, having beat the French under Montcalm, in the neighbourhood of Quebec, where both generals fell, that town, and all its dependencies, fell to the English; and, by the treaty of 1763, was confirmed to them, and the French government thereby annihilated in North America.

Since the above period, we may rank the English poffeffions in North America, under the heads of the following colonies, viz. Hudfon's Bay, Labra-. dor, Newfoundland, Canada, Nova Scotia, NewEngland, (including Maffachuffets Bay, Rhode

island,

ifland, Connecticut, and New-Hampshire, originally one colony, and though now under separate jurifdictions, are still confidered as fuch ;) New-York, New-Jerfey, Penfylvania, Virginia, Maryland, North-Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Eaft and Weft Florida: To thefe colonies may be added all thofe islands, which goes under the general name of the Weft-Indies, viz. Jamaica, Anguilla, Berbuda, St Chriftopher's, Nevis, Antigua, Montferrat, Dominica, St Vincent, Barbadoes, Tobago, and Granada, and the Grenadines, or Grenadillos; alfo the Bernudas, or Summer islands; the Bahama, or Lucayan iflands, in the Atlantic ocean. Of thefe, Dominica, St Vincent, Tobago, and Granada, were ceded by France to Great Britain, by the definitive treaty of 1763.

The chief commodities exported from G. B. to thofe colonies and Weft-Indian iflands, are wrought iron, steel, copper, pewter, lead, and brafs, cordage, hemp, fail-cloth, fhip-chandlery, painters colours, millinery, hofiery, haberdashery, gloves, hats, broadcloths, ftuffs, flannels, Colchester bays, long ell filks, gold and filver lace, Manchester goods, British, foreign, and Irish linens, earthen-wares, grind-ftones, Birmingham and Sheffield wares, toys, fadlery, cabinet wares, feeds, cheefe, ftrong beer, fmoaking pipes, fnuffs, wines, fpirits, and drugs, Eaft-India goods, books, paper, leather, befides many other articles, according to the different wants and exigencies of the different colonies, impoffible to be enumerated here. In return we receive tobacco, rice, flour, bifcuit, wheat, beans, peas, oats, Indian-corn, and other grain; honey, apples, cyder, and onions; faltbeef, pork, hams, bacon, venifon, tongues, figs, and raifins, prodigious quantities of cod, mackarel, and other fish, and fifh-oil; furs and fkins of wild beasts, fuch as bear, beaver, otter, furr, deer, and racoon, horfes, and live ftock; timber planks, mafts, boards, ftaves, fhingles, pitch, tar and turpentine; fhips.

built for fale, flax, flax-feed, and cotton; indigo, pot-afh, bees-wax, tallow, copper-ore, and iron in bars and in pigs; befides many other commodities peculiar to the climes and foils of the different provinces and ifles. As to thofe, which have been acquired by the last general peace, they are certainly very improveable, nor can we form any judgment of them, in their prefent infantine unfettled ftate. As we propofe making the war now fubfifting between the colonies and us, the fubject of the fecond part of this work, it is confidered at prefent fuffi. cient to exhibit a ftate of the trade of America, as it exifted when the differences firft took place, marking at the fame time the commercial ftrength and shipping of the colonies.

Colonies. Ships. Seamen. Exports from Exp. from
G. Britain. the Colonies.

Hudson's Bay
Labrador,

4 130 £.16,000 £.29,349

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REVOLUTIONS

AND

MEMORABLE EVENTS.

Grants to Sir Walter Ra

leigh and others.

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Afhort narrative of the memorable events and revolutions of the British colonies in North America, from the days of Queen Elizabeth to the prefent time, enumerating their different charters and grants, and fhewing when executed, to whom, and for what purpose.

W

HEN the Europeans firft vifited NewEngland, they found it inhabited by twenty different nations or tribes independent of each other, and commanded by their refpective chiefs. Of these nations, the most powerful was the Massachuffets, fituated on or near Boston harbour.The North-Eaft part of the continent of America was firft difcovered by Sebastian Cabot, a native of Bristol. In the year 1497, he discovered all the coaft, from Cape Florida, in 25 degrees of North latitude, to 67 and an half; from whence England claimed a right to Virginia, prior to the Spaniards, or any other European power.

Queen Elizabeth having equipped feveral fquadrons, under the command of thofe celebrated commanders Drake, Hawkins, and Raleigh, to cruize upon the Spanish coafts and iflands in Ame<rica, they brought home fuch favourable accounts of the riches and fertility of Florida, that a great many enterprizing gentlemen appeared very zealous of making fettlements in that part of the world, and chofe Mr. Raleigh, afterwards Sir Walter, to conduct the enterprize, who obtained a patent or

grant

grant from Queen Elizabeth, in the year 1584, of all fuch lands as he fhould difcover in North-America, between 33 and 40 degrees of North latitude, and to difpofe of them in fee-fimple, or otherwife, to any of the fubjects of England, referving to the crown a fifth part of all the gold and filver ore that fhould be acquired in fuch countries, paying the faid fifth part to the crown in lieu of all fervices.

Whereupon Mr. Raleigh formed a fociety among his friends, who contributed large fums, and provided two fhips to go upon the discovery, the command having been given to Capt. Philip Amidas and Capt. Arthur Barlow, who fet fail from England on the 20th of April 1584, and arrived at the ifland of Wokoken, on the coast of Carolina, in 34 degrees odd minutes, North latitude. They vifited another island a little to the Northward, called Roanoak; and fome of the officers went over to the neighbouring continent, where they were hofpitably entertained by Wingina, the king of that part of the country; however, they returned to the island of Wokoken before night, where they bartered fome utenfils of brafs and pewter, axes, hatchets, and knives, with the natives, for skins and furrs; and, having difpofed of all their goods, and loaded their ships with skins, faffafras, and cedar, and procured fome pearls and tobacco, they parted with the natives in a very friendly manner, returning to England with two Indians, who defired to come along with them. The tobacco brought home by these adventurers, being the first that was ever feen in England, was then extolled as a most valuable plant, and a remedy for almost every disease.

These two ships having made a profitable voyage, and it being reported that the country was immenfely rich, Mr. Raleigh and his friends fitted out a fleet of feven fhips more, giving the command of it to Sir Rich. Grenville, who fet fail from Plymouth

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