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the 9th of April 1585, and arrived at the island of Wokoken the 26th of June following, where the admiral's fhip was caft away going into the harbour; but he and all the crew were faved. The Admiral afterwards conducted the adventurers to the island of Roanoak, from whence he went over to the continent, and took a view of the country: but one of the natives ftealing a filver cup, he took a fevere revenge, burnt and plundered an Indian town, with all the corn growing in the fields, and leaving 108 men on the ifland of Roanoak, under the command of Mr. Ralph Lane, directed him to make further discoveries, and then fet fail for England, promifing to return with fuch reinforcements as fhould enable him to fubdue the neighbouring continent: but Mr. Lane marching to the Weft, found the country deftroyed before him as he advanced; and it was with great difficulty that he made his retreat to Roanoak again. And here the colony was in great danger of ftarving, if Admiral Drake had not taken them up as he was returning from a cruize, and brought them to England.
Sir Walter fent over feveral other little embarkations; but, neglecting to fupport them, all of them perished.
James I. No farther attempts were made to fix the colonies 1606. either in Carolina or Virginia, until the beginning of the reign of James I. who, by his letters patent, dated the 10th of April 1606, authorized Sir Tho. Gates, Sir George Summers, Richard Hackluit, Clerk, Prebendary of Westminster, and other adventurers, to plant the coaft of Virginia, between 34 and 45 degrees of North latitude; who thereupon fitted out three fmall fhips, giving the command of them to Capt. Chriftopher Newport, who fet fail from the Downs on the 5th of January, 1606-7, and, on the 26th of April, 1607, arrived in the bay of Chefepeak; and failing up the river Pow
Powhaten, now James river, they landed on a peninfula about fifty miles up the river, where they built a fort, and afterwards a town, which they called James-town, in honour of King James I. from whom they received their patent. This was the first town built by the English on the continent of America.
There happened fome fkirmishes between the English and the natives at their landing; but the Indians, apprehending they fhould not be able to maintain their ground against a people furnished with fire-arms, pretended to be reconciled, waiting however for an opportunity of falling upon thefe ftrangers, when they fhould meet with an advantage. The fort being finished, Capt. Newport, on the 22d of June, 1607, returned to England, leaving 104 men in the new fettlement.
The garrifon, foon finding themselves in want of provifions, and the natives refufing to furnish them with any, though they offered to give the full value for them, the English found themfelves under a neceffity of plundering the country; upon which an open war commenced between them and the natives; however, fresh fupplies and reinforcements coming over, commanded by Lord Delawar, the Indians were glad to enter into a treaty of peace, during which the English, finding a great demand for tobacco in Europe, began to encourage the planting of it, in which they fucceeded beyond their expectations; and at the fame time Sir G. Yardley, the governor, established a government refembling that of England, and the firft general affembly or parliament met at James-town, in May, 1620; and negroes were first imported into Virginia the fame year.
About the year 1619, fome diffenters of the inde- purchafed pendant perfuafion, who were uneafy at their being by Difrequired to conform to church of England, having fenters; a purchased the Plymouth patent, and obtained another erected, from 1621.
with feveral In
from King James to fend colonies to North Virginia, now New-England, embarked 150 men on board a fhip, which failed from Plymouth the 6th of September 1620, and arrived at Cape-Cod in NewEngland on the 9th of November following, where they built a town, and called it by the name of New Plymouth; and Mr. John Carver was elected their governor.
The Indians were, at this time, too much encompany gaged in wars among themfelves, to give these to an al- trangers any disturbance; and Maffaffoit, prince of the Massachuset pation, learning from one Quanto, an Indian who had been carried to England, what a powerful people the English were, made governor Carver a vifit the following fpring, and entered into an alliance, offenfive and defenfive, with the English, by whose affiftance he hoped to make a conqueft of the Narraganfet nation, with which he was then at war. This prince alfo confented to acknowledge the King of England his fovereign, and made a ceffion of part of his country to the new planters. Several other Sachems, or Princes, alfo followed the example of Maffafloit, and defired the protection of the English against their enemies, profeffing themfelves fubjects of king James.
Ships arriving every day almoft with planters and provifions, the colony foon became well established; religion, when differences arofe among the planters, upon ac-. count of religion. The dependants, who were the most numerous, not allowing a toleration to any this colo- other fect or perfuafion, feveral of the adventurers removed to other parts of the country, and others returned home, whereby the colony was fo weakened, that, if the Indians had not been engaged in a civil war, the English would infallibly been driven out of the country.
In the mean time, another fet of adventurers,
anno 1627, purchased a grant of the Plymouth com- The pany, of all that part of New-England, which lies Quakers between the river Merimac and Charles river; and plant to ftrengthen their title to this country, procured a lonies. grant of it from King Charles, anno 1628, and nominated Mr. Craddock their firft governor.
Another set of adventurers planted New Hampfhire, and others Providence and Rhode-Ifland, the laft being chiefly quakers, driven out of Maffachuffet colony by the Independents, who had long perfecuted them, and actually hanged fome of the quakers for not conforming to their fect.
Thus all the New-England provinces were planted and well-peopled within the space of twenty years, reckoning from the arrivial of the firft colony at New Plymouth, during which time they were very little interrupted by the Indians; but the English colony of Connecticut beginning to erect fortreffes, and extend their fettlements to the weftward, without the leave of the natives, the Indians were alarmed, apprehending they fhould in time be difpoffeffed of their country, and be enflaved by these foreigners.
The Sachem Metacoment therefore (to whom'the The InEnglish gave the name of Philip) the fon of Maffaf- dians are foit, who firft entered into an alliance with the English, obferving the danger his country was in, and the encroach. English now no longer acted as allies, but tyran- ments of nized over his people, and had in a manner deprived their him of his authority, difpatched meffengers private- new ally through all the tribes of the Indians, inviting them to take up arms in defence of their country, which they did, and fucceeded in feveral engagements at firft, but their prince Philip being killed by a muf ket-fhot, the English at length prevailed. Great numbers of the Indians were maffacred, and others driven out of their country, and joined the French in Canada, who promifed them aid and protection.
Force now proving ineffectual, and looking upon themfelves as a conquered people, the Indians entered into a confpiracy to maffacre all the English. on the 22d of March, 1622, about noon, when the English were abroad at work on their plantations, without arms; and they actually murdered 347 of the English, most of them being killed by their own working tools: but an Indian, who had been well ufed by his mafter, difclofing the defign to him a little before this execution, he gave notice to the reft of the planters, who stood upon their defence, and not only faved their own lives, but cut off great numbers of the Indians.
The planters, not long after, falling out among themselves, the Indians took an advantage of their divifions, and made another attempt to recover their country, killing great numbers of the English by furprise.
Thefe misfortunes being afcribed to the malcompany adminiftration of the company, King Charles I. difof Virgi- folved them in the year 1626, and reduced the government of Virginia under his own immediate direction, appointing the government and council himself, ordering all patents and proceffes to iffue in the king's name, referving a quit-rent of two fhillings for every hundred acres of land. The planters, however, falling into factions and parties again, the Indians made a third effort to recover their loft liberties, and cut off near 500 more of the English; but they were at length repulfed, and their king Oppaconcanough taken prifoner, and killed by a private foldier, very much against the will of Sir William Berkley, the then governor, who defigned to have brought him over into England, being a man of extraordinary ftature, and uncommon parts.
The act of navigation.
Sir William afterwards made peace with the Indians, which continued a confiderable time; but the