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civil war commencing in England, he was removed
from his government during the ufurpation, when
an ordinance of parliament was made, prohibiting the
plantations to receive or export any goods but in
English fhips; which gave birth to the act of navi-
gation in the reign of King Charles II, who rein-
ftated Sir William Berkley in his government at the

Sir William promoted the manufactures of filk and linen in this plantation, and was esteemed an excellent governor; but the act of navigation reftraining the planters from fending their merchandize to foreign countries, and from receiving cloathing, furniture, or fupplies from any nation but England, creating a deal of difcontent, Mr. Bacon, a popular factious gentlemen, took the advantage of their dif affection, and, fetting up for himself, drew the people into rebellion, depofed the governor, and compelled him to fly to the Eaftern fhore of the bay of Chefepeak; and, had not Bacon died in good time, he had probably made himfelf Sovereign of Virgi. nia; but, upon his death, Sir William returned to his government, and the people to their duty.


The province of New-York, which was fold to Newthe Dutch, about the year 1608, by a private con- York bes tract with Captain Hudson, its discoverer, was by the comes a royal goDutch called Nova Belgia. They cleared fome parts, built fome towns about the mouths of the rivers, and formed fome fettlements within land; and, about the year 1637, had spread themselves to the Northward of what is now called Jerfey, and encroached on the lands which had been fettled for fome years by a colony of Swedes, who had built the towns of Chriftiana, Elfingburg, and Gottenburg. But as this coaft had been firft difcovered by Cabot, for King Henry VII. it was reclaimed by King Charles II.; who in the year 1664, fent a force which took poffeffion of it for the duke


of York, to whom it had been granted by the king, his brother; and therefore the country was called New York. The part poffeffed by the Swedes was granted by the Duke of York to Lord Berkley and Sir George Carteret, whose families being of the ifle of Jerfey; they called it New Jerfey; one having the Eaft part, and the other the Weft part. Such of the Swedes and Dutch as chofe to ftay, and become fubjects to England, and tenants to the proprietors, were permitted to enjoy the fruits of their labour; and the Dutch who departed had the liberty of retiring to Surinam, which country the English had ceded to the Dutch by way of exchange. On the Duke of York's acceffion to the throne, New York fell to the crown, and became a royal government. And in 1702 the proprietors of the Jerseys furrendering the country to the queen, it became also a royal government.

The duke of York afterwards parcelled out thefe countries to under-proprietors, among whom William Penn, fon of Sir William Penn, admiral in the Dutch wars, was one.

All the reft of the under-proprietors, fome time after, furrendered their charters to the crown, whereby New York and the Jerseys became royal governments; but Penn retained that part of the country which had been granted to him, and king Charles II. made him another grant, in 1680, of the rest of that country, which now conftitutes the reft of Penfylvania, in confideration of a debt due to his father, the admiral, from the government. Penn, the fon, afterwards united the countries he poffeffed by both grants, into one, giving them the name of Penfylvania, and began to plant them in the year 1681. The Dutch and Swedish inhabitants chufing ftill to refide in this country, as they did in New-York and the Jerfeys, they and their defcendants enjoy the fame privileges as the rest of his


Majefty's fubjects in thefe plantations do, and are now in a manner the fame people with the English, speaking their language, and governed by their laws and customs.

Mr. Penn, however, notwithstanding the grants made him by the crown and the duke of York, did not esteem himself the real proprietor of the lands granted him, until he had given the Indians valuable confiderations (or what they esteemed fuch) for their country: he therefore affembled their Sachems or Princes, and purchafed countries of a very large extent of them, for a very moderate price, as they made fcarce any other ufe of their country than hunt in it. He paid them for it in clothes, tools, and utenfils, to the entire fatisfaction of the natives, who ftill retained more lands than they could poffibly use, being very few in number.

L. Balti

more, and

Maryland was difcovered in the year 1606, when Grants Virginia was first planted, and, for fome time, was made to esteemed a part of Virginia, until Charles I. in the year 1632, granted all that part of Virginia, which feveral lay North of Patowmac river, and was not then plant- Roman ed, to the right honourable Cecilius Calvert, Lord Catholics Baltimore of the kingdom of Ireland, and to his of Ireland heirs; which was afterwards named Maryland, in honour of the then confort Henrietta Maria, youngeft daughter of the French king Henry IV. The Lord Baltimore fent over his brother, the hon. Leonard Calvert, Efq; with feveral Roman Catholic gentlemen, and other adventurers, to the number of 200, who arrived in the bay of Chefepeak in the year 1633, and planted the first colony near the mouth of Patowmac river, and advancing to the Indian town of Yoamaco, they were permitted to refide in one part of the town, in confideration of fome presents they made to the Weroance, or prince of the country, who left them in poffeffion of the whole town as foon as this people had got in their




harvest; whereupon Mr. Calvert gave the town the name of St. Mary's: but what principally induced the Weroance to be fo exceedingly civil to the English was his being at war with the Sufquehannah Indians, and expecting to be protected by the Englih against that potent enemy, who had very near driven him out of his country. And fuch was the good understanding between the Yoamaco Indians and this colony, that, while the English were planting the country, the Indians hunted for them in the woods, and brought them in great quantities of venifon and wild fowl; and many Roman Catholic families coming over from England to avoid the penal laws, this foon became a flourishing colony, of which the Calverts remained governors until the civil wars in England, when the family were deprived of the government of this province, but recovered it again on the restoration of King Charles II. And the Hon. Charles Calvert, fon of the Lord Baltimore, remained governor of that Colony near 20 years, who promoted the planting of tobacco here, till the colony became almoft as confiderable for that branch of business as Virginia; and the family ftill remain proprietors of this plantation, being one of the moft confiderable eftates enjoyed by any fubject of Great Britain abroad.

Carolina was the last country in America planted by the English, after Sir Walter Raleigh's unfortu nate attempts to fix colonies in Carolina, in the latter end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. This country seems to have been entirely overlooked till the restoration of King Charles II. The then miniftry, being informed that Carolina would produce wine, oil, and filk, and almost every thing that Britain wanted, procured a patent or grant from King Charles to themfelves, dated the 24th of March 1663, of great part of this coaft; the grantees being Edward Earl of Clarendon, Lord Chancellor; George Duke of Albemarle, the general; William


Lord Craven, John Lord Berkley, the Lord Anthony Afhley Cooper, Sir George Carteret, Sir William Colleton, and their heirs. Thefe proprietors, however, did little towards planting it, until the year 1670, when Lord Ashley ftruck out a whimfical kind of government for the colony, creating a Palatine or Sovereign, with a council to be a check upon him; which involved them in perpetual quarrels, and almoft deftroyed the plantation as foon as it was fettled; to prevent which, they were at length obliged to fell their fhares to the crown; and it is now a royal government, only Earl Granville thought fit to retain his feventh fhare, which his family ftill remains in poffeflion of.

The Carolinas being frequently invaded and harraffed by the French and Spanifh Indians, the Englifh found it neceffary to extend their plantations farther South, and added that province denominated Georgia, contiguous to the Carolinas; and trustees were appointed to fortify that frontier against the incurfions of the Indians, who accordingly built towns, and erected forts on or near the banks of the rivers Savannah and Alatamaha, in order to cover thefe provinces against any hoftile attempts on that fide, for here only they were liable to be attacked. As to the reft, the Apalachian mountains cover the two Carolinas from any invafion from the West.

Gen. Oglethorpe commanded the firft embarkation for Georgia, to whom the Creek nation voluntarily relinquifhed their right to all the country South of the river Savannah, the Northern limits of this, new province of Georgia; and articles of commerce were fettled between the English and Creeks. There were fome attempts made the laft war to add the Spanish port of St. Auguftine to the province of Georgia; and had not Gen. Oglethorpe been betrayed, he had probably reduced that fortrefs; but Lot being able to confide in his people, he found it acceffary to retire from thence; and the Spaniards

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