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and South Carolinas, with the general occurrences of other colo-

nies in the year 1775.

CHAP. XI. Affairs at Boston continued to the total embarka-

tion of General Howe's army from that garrifon to Halifax.-

From the blockade of Quebec by Arnold, to the entire reco-

very of all Canada, particularizing the retaking of Montreal,

Chamblee, St. John's, &c.-Continuation of affairs in Virginia,

North and South Carolinas.-Some account of Sir Peter Par-

ker's fquadron, Lord Cornwallis and General Clinton's troops,

with their attack on Sullivan's Island.

CHAP. XII. The General Congrefs throw off their allegiance

to Great Britain, and declare themfelves an Independent Power.

Lord, and Gen. Howe appointed commiffioners for reftoring -

peace in the Colonies. Gen. Howe, with the army, land at

Staten Island. Circular letter, fent by Lord Howe to the

Continent, and published by the Congrefs. Letter to Gen.

Washington, refufed. Conference between Adjutant Gen.

Paterfon, and Gen. Washington. Plots at New York, and

Albany. Army landed at Long Island. Americans defeated

with great lofs. Retire filently from their camp, and quit the

ifland. Gen. Sullivan fent upon parole with a meffage from

Lord Howe to the Congrefs. Fruitless conference between his

Lordship and a Committee of the Congrefs. Defcent on York

Iland; City of New York taken; fet on fire, and a great part

burnt. Army pafs through the dangerous navigation called

Hell Gate; land at Frog's Neck; fkirmish at the White Plains.

Forts Washington and Lee taken, and the whole of York Island

reduced. Jerfeys overrun. Rhode Island reduced.

CHAP. XIII. Retrofpective view of American affairs in the year

1776. Preparation in Canada for the armament on Lake

Champlain. State of the American force. Engagement near

the isle Valicour. Arnold retires; purfuit; overtaken; burns

his veffels. Crown point deftroyed and abandoned. General

Carleton lands there with the army. Motives for not attack-

ing Ticonderoga. General Carleton returns with the army to

Canada. Situation of affairs to the fouthward. General Lee

taken. Perfeverance of the Congrefs. Measures for renewing

their armies. Lands allotted for ferving during the war. Money

borrowed. Addrefs to the people. Petitions from the inha-

bitants of New-York, and from thefe of Queen's country in Long

Ifland, to the Commiffioners. Critical ftate of Philadelphia.

Congress retire to Baltimore. Divifions in Penfylvania. De-

fertions. Surprize at Trenton. Lord Cornwallis returns to

the Jerfeys. Prevented from attacking the enemy at Trenton

by impediments of fituation. General Washington quits his

camp, and attacks Colonel Mawhood, near Princetown. Lord

Cornwallis returns from the Delaware to Brunfwick. Ame-

ricans over-run the Jerfeys. British and Auxiliary forces keep

poffeffion of Brunfwick and Amboy, during the remainder of

the winter. Indian war. Articles of confederation and per-

petual union between the thirteen revolted colonies.

CHAP. XIV. State of affairs at New-York previous to the

opening of the campaign. Loyal provincials embodied, and

placed under the command of Governor Tryon. Expedition

to Pecks Kill. To Danbury, under General Tryon. Maga-

zines deftroyed. General Woofter killed. Veffels and provi-

fions destroyed at Sagg Harbour, by a detachment from Con-

necticut under Colonel Meigs. Advantages derived by General

Washington, from the detention of the army at New-York

through the want of tents. Different fchemes fuggefted for

conducting the operations of the campaign, all tending to one

object. General Sir William Howe takes the field; fails in

his attempt to bring Washington to action; retires to Amboy.

Turns fuddenly and advances upon the enemy. Skirmishes.

Americans under Lord Stirling defeated. Washington regains

his ftrong camp. Royal army pafs over to Staten land.

Alarm excited by the preparations for the grand expedition.

General Prefcot carried off from Rhode Island. Rate of in-

tereft upon the public loan, advanced by the congrefs. Monu-

ments decreed for the Generals Warren and Mercer. Fleet and

army depart from Sandy Hook. Force embarked on the expe-

dition. Congrefs and Washington alarmed by the lofs of Ticon-

deroga. Fleet arrives at the River Elk, after a tedious voyage,

and difficult paffage up Chefapeak Bay, Army lands at Elk

Ferry. Declaration iffued by the General. Washington returns

to the defence of Philadelphia Advances to the Brandywine,

Red-clay creek. Various movements on both fides.

Action at the Brandywine. General Knyphaufen makes an

attack at Chad's Ford. Lord Cornwallis marches round to

the forks of the Brandywine, where he paffes, in order to at-

tack the enemy's right. Defeats General Sullivan. Purfues

his advantages until topped by night. General Knyphaufen

paffes at Chad's Ford. Enemy every where defeated. Lofs

on both fides. Reflections on the action. Victory not decifive.

Foreign officers in the American fervice. Motions of the

Major-General Grey, furprizes and defeats a party of Ame-

armies. Engagement prevented by a great fall of rain.

ricans under General Wayne Royal army pafles the Schuyl-

kill, and advances to German-Town.

takens poffeffion of Philadelphia. Some of the principal inha-

bitats fent prifoners to Virginia, upon the approach of the army.

Attack on the new batteries at Philadelphia. Delaware frigate

taken. Works conftructed by the Americans to render the

paffage of the Delaware impracticable. Successful expedition

to Billing's Fort, and a paffage made through the lower bar-

rier. Royal army furprized and attacked by the Americans at

German-Town. Americans repulfed with lofs and purfued,

Brigadier General Agnew, and Colonel Bird killed. Army

removes to Philadelphia. Unfuccefsful attack upon the enemy

works on the Delaware. Heffians repulfed with great lofs at

Red Bank Colonel Donop killed Augufta man of war and

Merlin floop destroyed New and effectual measures taken for

forcing the enemy's works. Mud Island and Red Bank, aban-

doned, and taken with their artillery and ftores 'Americans

burn their gallies and other fhipping Paffage of the Delaware

opened to Philadelphia. General Sir William Howe, finding

all his efforts to bring Washington to a general action fruitless,

returns with the army to Philadelphia. Americans Hut their

camp at Valley Forge for the winter

CHAP. XV. Canada. Conduct of the northern expedition

committed to General Burgoyne. Preparation made by General

Carleton Line of conduct purfued by him upon the new ar-

rangement Different opinions upon the utility and propriety

of employing the Savages. State of the force under the com

mand of General Burgoyne. Canadians obliged to contribute

largely to the fervice. Expedition under Colonel St. Leger.

War feat, and fpeech to the Indians at the river Bouquet.

Manifeito. Royal army inveft Ticonderago and Mount Inde-

pendence. Council of war held, and the forts abandoned by

the Americans. Boon and Bridge cut through. Purfuit by

land and water. Americans fet fire to, and abandon their

works. Rear of the Americans overtaken by General Frazer

near Hubberton Colonel Francis defeated and killed.

St. Clair, with the remains of the ariny take to the woods; and

arrive at length at Fort Edward. Enemy bravely repulfed by

Colonel Hill, and the 9th regimeat, who are obliged to engage

under a vaft fuperiority of force. Americans fet fire to, and

abandon Fort Anne. Extraordinary difficulties encountered

by the royal army in the march to Fort Edward. American

retires to Saratoga.

viour on the retreat. Siege raised before the arrival of Arnold and his detachment to the relief of the fort. General Gates takes the command of the American army. General Burgoyne: with the royal army pass the North River at Saratoga, and advance to attack the enemy near Still Water. Difference of opinion upon that measure, as well as the motives which led to its being adopted. Severe and heavy action on the nineteenth of September. Both armies fortify their camps. Unfortunate action on the feventh of October. Camp ftormed. Death of General Frazer, Colonel Breyman, and Sir James Clarke. Diftreffed fituation of the royal army. Mafterly movement made, and an entire new pofition taken in the night. New: engagement early fought, but refused on the next day by the enemy. Retreat to Saratoga. Previous defertion of the Indians and others. Royal army reduced to the utmost freights. Nearly furrounded on all fides. Cut off from all means of fubfiftence, and poffibility of retreat. Councils of war. Convention concluded with General Gates. Terms of the convention. State of the army. Successful expedition by Sir Henry Clinton and General Vaughan up the North River. Several forts taken; Elopus and other places deftroyed. Colonel Campbell, with the Majors Still and Grant, and Count Grabouskie, a Poilish nobleman, killed in this expedition. Some obfervations on the campaign



.462 CHAP. XVII. State of affairs previous to the Meeting of Parliament. Confequences of the American War with respect to Commerce. Conduct of France. Stability of Adminiftration equally fecured by good or bad fuccefs. Speech from the Throne. Motion for certain papers, after long debates rejected upon divifion. Circumftances attending the disclosure of the unhappy event at Saratoga. Lord Chatham's motion for the orders and inftructions to General Burgoyne, after confiderable debates, rejected upon a divifion. Debates upon a fecond motion by the fame noble Lord, relative to the employment of the favages in the American War Motion rejected upon a divifion. fcription for the American prifoners. State of public affairs. Scheme for railing a body of troops to fupply the lofs at Saratoga. Mr Fox s motions in the committee, relative to ftate of the forces in America from the commencement of the war, and the loffes fuftained on that service, rejected, after much debate. Petition from the county of Norfolk. Lord North's conciliatory propofitions. Two bills brought in thereon. Effect of the Minifter's fpeech. Conduct of the minority with refpect to his conciliatory scheme. Mr. Fox ftates his information of the conclufion of a treaty between France and the American deputies; calls upon the Minifter for an explanation on that fubject. Progrefs of the bills. Motion by Mr. Grenville rejected. French Declaration Royal Meflage. Great debates on the Addrefs. Circumflances relative to the arrival of General Burgoyne. Moon by Ir. Vyner relative to the Canada expedition. Amend


ment moved by Mr. Fox. Explanations of his fituation and

conduct by General Burgoyne. Debate. Mr Fox's amendment

rejected on a divifion. Original motion fet afide by the pre-

vious question Speech from the Throne.

CHAP. XVIII State of the hoftile armies in Philadelphia and

its neighbourhood during the winter. Hard condition of the

brave army under the convention at Saratoga Sufpenfion of

the treaty by the Congress, until a ratification is obtained from

Great Britain. Predatory expeditions from Philadelphia and

Rhode Island. Draught of the conciliatory bills published in

America, Effect produced by it on both fides. Conduct and

refolutions of the Congrefs. Simeon Deane arrives with the

French treaties. Sir Henry Clinton arrives to take the command

of the army at Philadelphia, in the room of General Sir Wil-

liam Howe, who returns to England. Arrival of the commif-

fioners for reftoring peace, &c. Letter to the Congress

cretary to the commiffioners refufed a paffport. Anfwer returned

by the Congrefs to the Commiffioners. Further particulars re-

lative to the propofed negociation. Evacuation of Philadelphia.

Difficulties encountered by the British army in their march

acrofs the Jerfies General Washington croffes the Delaware.

Battle near Monmouth Gen. Lee, tried by a court martial,

and fufpended. British army pafs over to Sandy Hook Island,

and are conveyed by the fleet to New-York Toulon fquadron

arrive on the coaft of America Appear before Sandy Hook,

caft anchor Alarm and preparations at Sandy Hook and

New-York. Departure of the French flect Arrival of rein-

forcements to Lord Howe. French fleet appears before Rhode

Inland Defenfive preparations by General Sir Robert Pigot.

Invafion of that Island meditated by the Americans, to fecond

the operations of the French Lord Howe fails to the relief

of Rhode Island D'Estaing quits the harbour and puts to fea,

to meet the British fquadron Fleets separated, at the point of

engaging, by a violent ftorm Captain Raynor, of the Ifis,

bravely engages a French man of war of 74 guns D'Estaing

returns to Rhode Island, and proceeds from thence to Boston.

Is purfued by Lord Howe General Sullivan lands in Rhode

Inland. Invests the British pofts, American army greatly dif-

concerted by D'Eftaing's departure Sullivan retreats, and at

length totally quits the Island. Lord Howe, finding D'Estaing's

fquadron fo strongly fecured in Nantasket Road, as to render an

attack impracticable, returns from Boston

CHAP. XIX Admiral Byron arrives of Bofton, is driven of

the coaft by a violent form. The Somerfet and Cornwall, two

of his fquadron, driven on fhore and beat to pieces. Arrives at

Rhode and with the remainder of his flect.D Eftaing, tak-

ing the advantage of a wefterly wind, fails out of Bofton har-

bour for the Weft-Indies; is difcried by Culloden one of By-

n's fleet, who takes one of his tranfports Commodore Ho-

with a fquadron of men of war, and a numberof tranf-

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