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Of all the problems which America faces on the land and on the seas, no one is so important as that of making regenerates out of degenerates. The massing of people in large cities, the incoming of vast multitudes from the impoverished masses of several European and Asiatic countries, the tendency to interpret liberty as license, the contagious nature of moral, as well as of physical, diseases combine to make it of the utmost importance that American enterprise and moral force find ways and means for accomplishing this transformation. The grand results of the movement in New York city inspired by Jacob Riis ; the fascinating benevolence of the Roycroft Shop in East Aurora, N. Y.; the marvelous transfiguration of character-I speak it reverently-at the George Junior Republic, Freeville, N. Y., added to the College Settlement and kindred efforts merely indicate what may be accomplished when philan. thropy supplements saying by doing, and when Christianity stands for the beauty of wholeness and is satisfied with nothing less than the physical, mental and moral conversions of all classes among the masses at home as well as abroad, in the East as well as in the West.
A problem is primarily something thrown at us as a challenge for us to see through it. To solve a problem is to loosen it so that it may be looked into or seen through. Whatever contributes to the loosening of a problem by throwing light upon the conditions is of value in aiding in its solution, hence the publication of this study of the family of Jonathan Edwards as a contrast to the Jukes.
A. E. W. Somerville, Mass., June 1, 1900.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Education is something more than going to school for a few weeks each year, is more than knowing how to read and write. It has to do with character, with industry, and with patriotism. Education tends to do away with vulgarity, pauperism, and crime, tends to prevent disease and disgrace, and helps to manliness, success and loyalty.
Ignorance leads to all those things that education tries to do away with, and it tends to do away with all the things that education tries to cultivate. It is easy to say these things, and every one knows they are true, but few realize how much such statements mean. It is not easy to take a view of such matters over a long range of time and experience.
A boy that leaves school and shifts for himself by blacking boots, selling papers, and “swiping” fruit often appears much smarter than a boy of the same age who is going to school all the time and does not see so much of the world. A boy of twelve who has lived by his wits is often keener than a boy of the same age who has been well brought up at home and at school, but such a boy knows
about as much and is about as much of a man at twelve as he will over be, while the boy that gets an education becomes more and more of a man as long as he lives.
But this might be said a thousand times to every truant, and it would have very little effect, because he thinks that he will be an exception. He never sees beyond his own boyish smartness. Few men and women realize how true it is that these smart rascally fellows, who persist in remaining in ignorance, are to be the vicious, pauper, criminal class who are to fill the dens of vice, the poorhouses, and the prisons; who are to be burglars, highwaymen, and murderers. In place of opinions, it is well sometimes to present facts so clear and definite that they cannot be forgotten.
R. A. Dugdale, of New York State, began the study of “The Jukes” family in 1874, and in 1877 in the twentieth annual report of the New York Prison Commission he made a statement of the results. * This brief summary of the Jukes” is based upon the facts which Mr. Dugdale has published.
“The Jukes” is a name given to a large family of degenerates. It is not the real name of any family, but a general term applied to forty-two different names borne by those in whose veins flows the blood of one man. The word “jukes” means 6 to roost.” It refers to the habit of fowls to have
*G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, reprinted this study in “ The Jukes."