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THE

LIFE OF FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS.

$ 1. The family from which I am derived is | Matthias Curtus, and that in the first year of not an ignoble one, but hath descended all the government of Hyrcanus: his son's name along from the priests; and as nobility among was Joseph, born in the ninth year of the leveral people is of a different origin, so with reign of Alexandra: his son Matthias was us to be of the sacerdotal dignity, is an indi. born in the tenth year of the reign of Archecation of the splendour of a family. Now, I laus; as was I born to Matthias in the first am not only sprung from a sacerdotal family year of the reign of Caius Cæsar. I bave in general, but from the first of the twenty-three sons: Hyrcanus, the eldest, was born four' courses; and as among us there is not in the fourth year of the reign of Vespasian, only a considerable difference between one as was Justus born in the seventh, and Agrippa family of each course and another, I am of in the ninth. Thus have I set down the the chief family of that first course also; nay, I genealogy of my family as I have found it defartber, by my mother, I am of the royal blood; scribed † in the public records, and so bid for the children of Asamoneus, from whom adieu to those who calumniate me (as of a that family was derived, bad both the office lower original]. of the high priesthood, and the dignity of a 2. Now, my father Matthias was not only king, for a long time together. I will accord- eminent on account of his nobility, but had a ingly set down my progenitors in order. My higher commendation on account of his rightegrandfather's father was named Simon, with ousness; and was in great reputation in Jethe addition of Psellus: he lived at the same rusalem, the greatest city we have. I was time with that son of Simon the high priest, myself brought up with my brother, whose who first of all the high priests was named name was Matthias, for be was my own broHyrcanus. This Simon Psellus had nine ther, by both father and mother; and I made sons, one of whom was Matthias, called Eph. mighty proficiency in the improvements of my lias: he married the daughter of Jonathan learning, and appeared to have both a great the high priest; which Jonathan was the first memory and understanding. Moreover, when of the sons of Asamoneus, who was high | I was a child, and about fourteen years of priest, and was the brother of Simon the high age, I was commended by all for the love I priest also. This Matthias bad a son called had to learning; on which account the high

priests and principal men of the city came We may hence correct the error of the Latin copy of then frequently to me together, in order to cond book Against Apion, sect. 8 (for the Greek is on), which says, there were then only four tribes

know my opinion about the accurate underrses or the priests, instead of twenty-four. Nor

standing of points of the law; and when I tous lestimony to be disregarded, as if Josepbus there radicted what he bad vormed bere; because even

was about sixteen years old, I had a mind to account there given better agrees to twenty-four

make trial of the several sects that were among AB lo four courses while he says that eacbor (DOS us. These sects are three:- The first is that courses contained above 3.000 men, which, multiplied by of the Pharisees the second that of the sad

Four, will make not more than 20,000 priests; where

number 120,000, as multiplied by 24, seems much ducees, and the third that of the Essens, as most probable, they being about ono tenth of the we have frequently told you; for I thought people, even after the captivity. See Ezra ii.

Nebem. vii. 39-42, T'Esd. v. 24, 25; with I that by this means I might choose the best, if Lara, li. 64; Nehem. vii. 66; 1 Esd. v.41. Nor with this 11 were once acquainted with them all; so I amon reading or notion of but four courses of priests, * With Josephus's own further assertion elsewhere

.D. vii. ch. xiv. soct. 7). that David's partition of It An eminent example of the care of the Jews about Fiesta into twenty-four courses, had continued to their genealogies, especially as to the priests. See Against

| Apion, b. i. sect. 7.

that day,

contented myself with hard fare, and under. I became acquainted with Aliturius, an actor went great difficulties, and went through them of plays, and much beloved by Nero, but a all. No: did I content myself with these Jew by birth; and through bis interest became trials only; but when I was informed that known to Poppea, Cæsar's wife; and took one, whose name was Banus, lived in the care, as soon as possible, to entreat her to desert, and used no other clothing than grew procure that the priests might be set at liber. upon trees, and had no other food than what ty; and when, besides this favour, I had obgrew of its own accord, and bathed himself tained many presents from Poppea, I returned in cold water frequently, both by night and home again. by day, in order to preserve his chastity, Il 4. And now I perceived innovations were imitated bim in those things, and continued already begun, and that there were a great with him three years." So when I had ac- many very much elevated, in hopes of a recomplished my desires, I returned back to the volt from the Romans. I therefore endeacity, being now nineteen years old, and began i voured to put a stop to these tumultuous per. to conduct myself according to the rules of the sons, and persuaded them to change their sect of the Pharisees, which is of kin to the minds; and laid before their eyes against sect of the Stoics, as the Greeks call them. whom it was that they were going to fight

3. But when I was in the twenty-sixth and told them that they were inferior to the year of my age, it bappened that I took a Romans not only in martial skill, but also in voyage to Rome; and this on the occasion good fortune; and desired them not rashly, which I shall now describe. At the time and after the most foolish manner, to bring when Felix was procurator of Judea, there on the dangers of the most terrible mischiefs were certain priests of my acquaintance, and upon their country, upon their families, and very excellent persons they were, wbom on a upon themselves. And this I said with vehesmall and trifling occasion he had put into ment exhortation, because I foresaw that the bonds, and sent to Rome to plead their cause end of such a war would be most unfortunate before Cæsar. These I was desirous to pro- to us. But I could not persuade them; for cure deliverance for; and that especially be the madness of desperate men was quite too cause I was informed that they were not un- hard for me. mindful of piety towards God, even under 5. I was then afraid, lest, by inculcating their afflictions; but supported themselves these things so often, I should incur their with figs and nuts. Accordingly I came to hatred and their suspicions, as if I were of Rome, though it were through a great num- our enemies' party, and should run into the ber of hazards, by sea; for, as our ship was danger of being seized by them and slain, drowned in the Adriatic Sea, we that were in since they were already possessed of Antonia, it, being about six hundred in number, # swam which was the citadel; so I retired into the for our lives all the night; when, upon the inner court of the temple; yet did I go out first appearance of the day, and upon our sight of the temple again, after Manabem and the of a ship of Cyrene, I and some others, eighty principal of the band of robbers were put to in all, by God's providence, prevented the death, when I abode among the high priests rest, and were taken up into the other ship: and the chief of the Pharisees; but no small and wben I had thus escaped, and was come fear seized upon us when we saw the people to Dicearchia, which the Italians call Puteoli, in arms, while we ourselves knew not what

• When Josephus here says, that from sixteen to nine we should do, and were not able to restrain teen, or for three years, he made trial of the three Jewish the seditious. However, as the danger was sects, the Pharisees, the Sadducees, and the Essens, and yet says presently, in all our copies, that he stayed directly upon us, we pretended that we were besides with one partioular ascetic, called Banus, rug' of the same opinion with them; but only adaura, with him, and this still before he was nineteen, vised them to be quiet for the present, and to there is little room left for his trial of the three other sects. I suppose, therefore, that for far sura, with him, the old reading might be rag' auton, with them; which is a very small emendation, and takes away the difficulty

came, and that with great forces, and so put before us. Nor is Dr. Hudson's conjecture, hinted at by Mr. Hall in his preface to the Doctor's edition of Jose an end to these seditious proceedings. pbus,at all improbable, that this Banus, by this bis descrip 6. But, upon his coming and fighting, he tion, might well be a follower of John the Baptist, and that from him Josephus might easily imbine such notions, was beaten, and a great many of those that as afterwards prepared him to have a favourable opinion were with him fell; and this disgrace whicb of Jesus Christ himself, who was attested to by John the Gessius with Cestius) received, became the daptist. .We may note here, that religions men among the calamity of uui whole nation; for those that Jews, or at least those that were priests, were sometimes ascetics also, and, like Daniel and his companions in Babylon (Dan. i. 8-16), ate no flesh, but figs and

this success, that they had hopes of finally connuts, &c. only. This was like the im moxyce, or austera quering the Romans. Of which war ano! her diet of the Christian ascetics in Passion Week. Con- occasion was ministered; which was this:-stitut. v. 18.

ili bas been thought the number of Paul and his Those that dwelt in the neighbouring cities of companions on ship-board (Acts xxvii. 38), which are Syria seized upon such Jews as dwelt among 276 in our copies, are too many; whereas we find here. I them, with their wives and children, and slew ibat Josephus and his companions, a very few years after the other, were about 60.

then, when they had not the least occasion of

ects, the Phariseesc. in all our copies. Banus, sue of the nom to be quiet for the

hoping that complaint against them; for they did neither them to send to those that were their own hosattempt any innovation or revolt from the tages with Gessius to Dora, which is a city of Romans, nor bad they given any marks of Phænicia, as often as they pleased; though I hatred or treacherous designs towards the Sy- still found the inhabitants of Tiberias ready to rians: but what was done by the inhabitants take arms, and that on the occasion follow. of Scythopolis was the most impious and most ing: highly criminal of all;* for when the Jews, their 9. There were three factions in this city. enemies, came upon them from without, they The first was composed of men of wortb and forced the Jews that were among them to bear gravity; of these Julius Capellus was the head. arins against their own countrymen, which it Now be, as well as all bis companions, Herod is unlawful for us to do;t and when, by their the son of Miarus, and Herod the son of Gaassistance, they bad joined battle with those malus, and Compsus the son of Compsus (for who attacked them, and had beaten them, af as to Compsus's brother Crispus, who had once ter that victory they forgot the assurances they been governor of the city under the great king had given these their fellow-citizens and con- [Agrippa), he was beyond Jordan in his own federates, and slew them all; being in nuinber possessions); all these persons before named many ten thousands (13,000). The like mis- gave their advice, that the city should then eries were undergone by those Jews that were continue in their allegiance to the Romans the inhabitants of Damascus; but we have and to the king; but Pistus, who was guided given a more accurate account of these things by his son Justus, did not acquiesce in that in the books of the Jewish war. I only men- resolution, otherwise he was bimself naturally tion them now, because I would demonstrate of a good and virtuous character: but the seto my readers that the Jews' war with the cond faction was composed of the most ignoRomans was not voluntary, but that, for the ble persons, and was determined for war. But main, they were forced by necessity to enter as for Justus, the son of Pistus, who was the into it.

head of the third faction, although he pre7. So when Gessius had been beaten, as tended to be doubtful about going to war, yet we have said already, the principal men of was he really desirous of innovation, as supJerusalem, seeing that the robbers and inno-posing that he should gain power to himself vators had arms in great plenty, and fearing lest by the change of affairs. He therefore caine they, wbile they were unprovided with arms, into the midst of them, and endeavoured to should be in subjection to their enemies, which inform the multitude that “the city Tiberias also came to be the case afterwards, -and, be- had ever been a city of Galilee; and that in ing informed that all Galilee had not yet re- the days of Herod the tetrarch, who had built volted from the Romans, but that some part it, it had obtained the principal place; and that of it was still quiet, they sent ine and two be had ordered that the city Seppboris should others of the priests, who were men of excel. be subordinate to the city Tiberias: that they lent characters, Joazar and Judas, in order to bad not lost this pre-eminence even under persuade the ill men there to lay down their Agrippa the father; but had retained it until arms, and to teach them this lesson, – That it Felix was procurator of Judea; but he told were better to have those arms reserved for them, that now they had been so unfortunate the most courageous men that the nation had as to be made a present by Nero to Agrippa, [than to be kept there;] for that it had been junior; and that upon Seppboris's submission resolved, That those our best men should al- of itself to the Romans, that was become the ways have their arms ready against futurity; capital city of Galilee, and that the royal treabut still so, that they should wait to see what sury and the archives were now removed from the Romans would do.

them." When he had spoken these things, 8. When I had therefore received these in- and a great many more against king Agrippa, structions, I came into Galilee, and found the in order to provoke the people to a revolt, he people of Sepphoris in no small agony about added, That “this was the time for them to their country, by reason that the Galileans had take arms, and join with the Galileans as resolved to plunder it, on account of the friend their confederates (whom they might comship they had with the Romans; and because mand, and who would now willingly assist. they had given their right hand, and made a them, out of the hatred they bear to the peoleague with Cestius Gallus, the president of ple of Seppboris; because they preserved their Syria: but I delivered them all out of the fidelity to the Romans), and to gather a great fear they were in, and persuaded the multi- number of forces, in order to punish them." tude to deal kindly with them, and permitted And, as he said this, he exhorted the multi

| tude [to go to war]; for his abilities lay in • See Jewish War. b ii. ch. xviii. met. 3.

+ The Jews might coileet Ibis unlawfulness of fighting making harangues to the people, and in being acainst their brethren from that law of Moses (Levit. xix. 16) "Thon shaft not stand against the blood ol thy arigh hour;" and that (ver, 17) - Thou shalt not avenge him, though they advised what was more to nor lear any grudge, against the children of thy people; but thou shall love thy neig' hour as thyseil:" as well as That this Herod Agrippa, the father, was of old (roun mariyother pines in the Pentatruch and Propbets called the Great King, as here, appears by his coins still Clar Antiq. b, rii, c'ı Vali, ect. 3

remaining: to whick Havercamp refers us.

osed

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