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That our Lord Jesus Christ has an human Body, is agreed between us. And indeed, 'tis as certain, as that Julius Cæsar had one. For we have the fame Evidence of both. But perhaps we are not agreed that he has an human Soul: at least you do not once affirm it. You (a) say, On which fide foever that Question ( viz. whether the Divine Nature supply'd the Place of the Human Soul in Chrift)*be determined it makes no Alteration at all in my Scheme. And therefore, to avoid all needless Difficulties, I neither affirmed nor supposed any thing, which will not hold equally true upon either Hypothesis
. Whether your Do&rin may be maintain' with equal Advantage upon, either Hypothesis, I do not at present dispate. But 'tis plain, you have not appear'd willing to speak Your Thoughts freely about this Matter; and therefore, fince I think it of Importance with respect to the Controversy, you will give me leave briefly to offer fome of my Thoughts.
I observe therefore, 1. That no Argument can be drawn from Reason against our Savior's having an human soul. His Actions never discover'd the Want of it. And therefore we must intirely depend upon the Holy Scriptures for the Determination of this point. 2. That the Holy Scriptures do not so much as once exprefly say, that our Savior had not an human soul. There is not one Text alleg’d for that Purpose, that I know of. 3. That thotbe word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, and consequently was united to an human Body ; yet this does not prove, that our Lord had not an hu. man Soul. For the WORD might as well be united both to an human Body and to an human Soul, as to an human Body without an human Soul. (n) Answer to the Bishop of Cheffer, p. 219:
Wherefore we have no reason to deny our Savior an human Soul, altho'the WORD was incarnat.
But the Holy Scriptures, not only do not deliver, but manifeftly oppose, and overthrow this Conceit. For as 'twas ever believ'd, that a Man consists of an human Soul and an human Body united (fo that if either of these integral Parts be wanting, the Man, that is, a true, perfect, and proper Man, is not) so the Holy Scriptures, which by a Man do understand such a compounded Nature, do represent our Savior as a Man, as fully, plainly, and clearly,as any one other Man in the World. He is without a Figure,and not in any borrow'd Sense,exprefly stiled dugar and are, that is, a Man,both by himself and the Sacred Writers. He himself saies, But now ye seek to kill me, a man that has told you the truth, which I have heard of God, John 8. 40. And elsewhere he makes him as much a Man, and a Man in the same Sense, as was Adam himself, saying, for since by man came deatb, by man came also the resurrection of the dead; for as in Adam all die, even so in Cbrift shall all be made alive, 1 Cor. 15.21, 22. And again, the first man is of the eartb, eartby : the second man
is the Lord from heaven, v. 47. Nay, he gives him the very Name of Adam, saying, the first man Adam was made a living Soul, the last Adam was made a quickning Spirit, v.45. Nay, 'tis very observable, that the Apostle declares him to be as much a Man, and a Man of the very fame Kind, as we our selves in general are. For says he, But not as the offence, so also is the free gift : for if through the offence of one, many be dead; much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man Fesus Christ, hath abounded (ris zames) unto many, that is, unto many Men, Rom. 5. 15. So that our Lord Jesus Christ is as truly a Man as any of our selves;
the Redeemer is the same fort of Man as the Perfons Redeem'd by him. Thus the same Apoftle faies, there is one Mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jefus, 1 Tim. 2. 5. And again, he bas appointed a day in the which be will judge the world in righteousness, by that man whom he has ordained: whereof be bas given assurance unto all men, in tbat he has raised him from the dead, Acts 17. 31. So that our Mediator and Judge is as much a Man, as those for whom he intercedes, and who shall be judged by him. To these I might add diverse other Texts. And what is the plain Sense of them? What did our Savior and his Apoftlęs understand by the Word Man? What sort of Creature did they take Adam, and all other Men, to be? Even such as was our Lord himself. The human soul is by much the principal Part of Man, and his chief constituent Part ; and therefore to suppose a Man (a true, perfect, and proper Man, and such as our Lord is notori. ously describʼd and affirm'd to be) without an human Soul, is the height of Absurdity.
I will not enter into a Metaphysical Inquiry, what constitutes the Effence or Substance of an human Soul or human Body. The Effences or Subftances of Things are little understood by us. We can't precisely determin, what makes an Identity of Nature or Kind.. But tho' we can't precisely determin, what makes an Identity: yet a small share of common Sense can discern a manifeft Diversity; for instance, that the WORD which created all things, is not an human Soul. And consequently for any one to affirm, that the WORD joined to an human Body makes a Man, is much more ridiçulous, than to affirm, that an human Soul joined to the Body of a Lion, is a Man. For there is a
wider Difference between the WORD and an human Soul, than between the Body of a Man and the Body of a Lion.
Whosoever therefore affirms, that our Savior wanted an human soul, must not think to prove his Doctrin true, by faying, that 'tis possible in the Nature of the Thing, for the WORD to supply the want of an human Soul in Christ (for tho' I do by no means yield, that such a Supposition is consistent with the Scriptural Account of the Blessed Jesus; yet if it were granted, 'tis no Proof) but he must give some convincing Demonstration, that tho' the Holy Scriptures do not expresly say, that Christ wanted an human Soul ; yet, when they call him Man, they certainly mean something different from what that Word does ordinarily import, as it occurs in the inspired Books. 'Till this is don (which is evidently impoffible) the Word Man, when spoken of the Blessed Jesus, must be understood in the obvious, usual and common Sense. And consequently it appears by the plain Declarations of himself, and of the Inspired Wri. ters, that our Savior had an human Soul.
Again, let us observe, how the Author to the Hebrews argues. Having shewn in his
first Chapter, that our Lord Jesus Christ iş a Person of grearer Dignity than the Angels, he infers from thence, in the former Part of the second Chapter, the Necefsity of our Obedience to the Laws of the Gospel.
Then he proceeds to evince our Savior's Exalcation from the Old Testament, by quoting some Words of the Eighth Psalm, thus, But one in a certain place teftified, saying, What is man that thou art mindful of him : or the son of man, that thou visitest him? Thou madeft him a little lower than the Angels, thou crown
edt him with glery and bonour, and did;t set him over the works of tby bands: Tbou bast put all things in fubjection under bis feet, Heb. 2. 6, 7, 8. He then observes the Universalicy of this Subje&ion, saying, For in ibat be put all in ubjection under bim, be left norbing that is nct put under bim, v. 8. He then concludés, that this must be understood, not of Man in General, but of one Particular Man, viz. our Lord Jesus Christ, saying, But now we see not yet all things, put under bim. But we see Jesus, who was made a little Lower than the Angels, for the suffering of dearb, crowned with glory and bonour, tbat be by the grace of God should taft death for every man, v. 8, 9. 'Tis notorious therefore, that Christ Jesus was a Man in the same Sense with other Men in General, that is, he had the same human Nature with our felves. Ocherwise the ApoAtle's Argument is impertinent, and a mere Cheat put upon his Readers. Now if Christ Jesus was as much a Man as others, he certainly had an human Soul, as well as an human Body.
But, what is still more remarkable, now follows. He informs us, that Christ ought to be of the same Nature with our felves, in order to his being the Redeemer of Mankind. For these are his Words, Wherefore in all things it behoved him (ouo.wblwce) to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest, in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people
. For in that be bimself bath suffered, being tempted,'be'is able to succour them that are tempted, ver. 17, 18. I confess, this Passage is the Conclusion of his Argument for the Necessity of Christ's baving Flesh and Bloud, as we have : but then, the Expressions are such, as manifestly suppose and imply, that he had also an human Soul, For he says, it behoved Christ to be made like unto his Brethren, ty neyte, in all things. Now this does