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Rosellini, Breve notizia intorno un frammento de Papiro funebre egizio esistente nel ducale museo di Parma, Parma, 1839, 8vo.; "Description de l'Égypte," ed. Jomard, Antiquités, tom. II, pl. 64 ff. The most important publication, however, was that of Lepsius, who in 1842 reproduced the complete text of a papyrus at Turin, which contained 165 Chapters, under the title of Das Todtenbuch der Aegypter. Champollion called the Book of the Dead the "Rituel Funéraire," and this misleading title was adopted by de Rougé who, in his Études sur le Rituel Funéraire des Anciens Egyptiens,1 brought forward his reasons for so doing, and considered that all he said "justifie suffisamment, suivant nous, le titre choisi par Champollion." Now, the famous " Grammaire" proves that Champollion had examined every part of the work which he called a "Rituel," and the many short passages which he translated show that he recognized the nature of its contents and rightly appreciated its great value from a religious point of view. But he analysed no complete Chapter of it, and he translated no paragraph of any length, and the assertions that have been made to the effect that he was the first translator of the Book of the Dead are incorrect statements based upon insufficient information on the subject. Now the Saïte Recension is no funerary Ritual, a fact which was pointed out by Lepsius as far back as 1842,2 but it is almost as wrong to call it "Book of the Dead" as funerary Ritual, and it is unsatisfactory and misleading. For the texts in it do not form a connected whole; they represent several grades of religious thought which were evolved during a period of from three to four thousand years, and they tell us nothing about the lives of the dead with whom they were buried. Moreover, the Egyptians possessed many works of a funerary character that are, in exactly the same way as the Theban and Saïte Recensions, "Books of the Dead," e.g., the "Book of the Two Ways," the " Book Ammi Ţuat," the "Book of Gates," the "Book of Breathings," the "Book of Traversing Eternity," etc. The title Book of the Dead" is only a translation of Kitâb al-Mayyitûn, which was the Arabic name given by the natives in Egypt to the roll of inscribed papyrus that the tomb robbers found in almost every fine tomb in Thebes. Champollion, after his return from Egypt, called such a roll " Livre des Morts," Lepsius called his reproduction

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1 In Revue Archéologique, N.S., tom. I, 1860, pp. 69-100, 234-249, 337-365. 2 Dieser Codex ist kein Ritualbuch, wofür es Champollion's Bezeichnung Rituel Funéraire zu erklären scheint; es enthält keine Vorschriften für den Todtenkultus, keine Hymnen oder Gebete, welche von den Priestern etwa bei der Beerdigung gesprochen worden wären: sondern der Verstorbene ist selbst die handelnde Person darin, und der Text betrifft nur ihn und seine Begegnisse auf der langen Wanderung nach dem irdischen Tode. Es wird entweder erzählt und beschrieben, wohin er kommt, was er thut, was er hört und sieht, oder es sind die Gebete und Anreden, die er selbst zu den verschiedenen Göttern, zu welchen er gelangt, spricht. Lepsius, Vorwort (Todtenbuch), p. 3.

of the Turin Papyrus "Das Todtenbuch," and their example was followed by Brugsch, Devéria, Ebers, Erman, Golénischeff, Lauth, Lieblein, Maspero, Naville, Pleyte, and others. Birch, in deference to the views of Bunsen, used the title "Funereal Ritual," but, like Goodwin and Renouf, always spoke of the "Book of the Dead

when referring to the

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Chapters of

Coming Forth by Day." Chabas spoke of the work as "Le Pireem-hrou" (Oriental Congress, Compte Rendu, tom. I, Paris, 1876, p. 37 ff.), and Devéria boldly translated the title as "Livre de sortir du jour" (Catalogue, Paris, 1874, pp. 48-129). A facsimile of the text of the Saïte Recension as published by Lepsius was republished by C. H. S. Davis and, under the title of the "Egyptian Book of the Dead," appeared at New York in 1892. And Lieblein published an Index de tous les Mots contenus dans le Livre des Morts, Paris, 1875, that is to say, a Vocabulary to the Saïte Recension. Only two translations of the Saïte Recension have appeared, viz., that by Birch entitled the "Funereal Ritual" in Bunsen's Egypt's Place in Universal History, Vol. V, pp. 123-333, London, 1867, and that by Pierret, Le Livre des Morts des Anciens Égyptiens. Traduction complète d'après le papyrus de Turin et les MSS. du Louvre, Paris, 1882. Translations of a number of Chapters, which probably belong both to the Theban and Saïte Recensions, were published by Pleyte in his Chapitres Supplémentaires du Livre des Morts, Leyden, 1881, 3 vols.

The most remarkable funerary papyrus of the Graeco-Roman Period is that of Kerasher, or Gersher, a coloured facsimile of which is published in my Facsimiles of the Papyri of Hunefer, Anhai, Kerasher, London, 1899, fol. The Vignettes are painted in gaudy colours, and one of them represents the Judgment Scene in the Hall of Osiris; the text is written in hieratic and contains the SHAI EN SINSIN, or "Book of Breathings." About the time when this was written it became customary to bury with a mummy a small roll of papyrus inscribed in hieratic with a series of short extracts from the Saïte Recension, including the Negative Confession of Chapter CXXV. The little roll was formed of a sheet of papyrus of from 6 to 12 inches square, and the text on it was supposed to contain all that was necessary to effect the acquittal of the deceased in the Hall of Osiris and to ensure his resurrection. Other short and popular funerary works at this time were the "Book of Traversing Eternity," the "Book of Breathings," and the " Book May my Name Flourish,' the last-named being based upon a well-known passage in the Pyramid Texts.1

1 English translations of all these will be found in my Chapters of Coming Forth by Day, 1 vol., London, 1923; see also Birch, On some Egyptian Rituals of the Roman Period" in Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., Vol. VII, p. 49.

Reproductions of the Book of the Dead written in demotic have been published by Revillout, E., Rituel Funéraire de Psamuth, Paris, 1880, and by Lexa, F., Das Demotische Totenbuch der Pariser Nationalbibliothek, Leipzig, 1910. Here, too, must be mentioned the two papyri that were acquired at Thebes by Mr. A. H. Rhind in 1861, and were published in facsimile by him two years later. The texts in them are of a funerary character and are based on the Book of the Dead; they are written in hieratic and demotic. A translation of the hieratic text was published by Birch in Mr. Rhind's Facsimile in 1863, and as a result of Birch's remarks on the decipherment of demotic Brugsch republished the papyri in a work entitled Henry Rhind's Zwei Bilingue Papyri, Hieratisch und Demotisch, übersetzt und herausgegeben, Leipzig, 1865, 4to. The description "Bilingue" is likely to mislead, and therefore it may be pointed out that the texts are not written in two languages; the language is one, namely, Egyptian, but the forms of writing are two, namely, hieratic and demotic. A new edition of these Rhind papyri was published some ten years ago by Moeller, Die Beiden Totenpapyrus Rhind, Leipzig, 1913, 4to. The man for whom they were written was Mentsaf, , the son of Menkarā,

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His wife was called Tanit, 49. This is a most useful

book, and all must lament that the activities of Moeller were brought to an end by his death during the Great War.


DURING the recital of the Book of Opening the Mouth over the figure of the deceased or his mummy in the tomb, vessels containing the Seven Holy Oils were brought into the Ţuat Chamber, and the ceremony of anointing took place according to the directions given by the Rubrics. In the case of a king the oils were presented in alabaster flasks or bottles, but for a man of lesser rank only a few drops of each of the seven oils were poured into seven circular hollows which were cut in a rectangular slab of alabaster measuring about 5 inches by 2 inches. The names of the oils are: (1) Seth-ḥeb, (2) Ḥeknu, (3) Sefth, (4) Nem, (5) Tuaut, (6) Ḥa-ash, (7) Tet-entTheḥenu. These are the forms of the names as given on the slab of the Kher-ḥeb priest Åṭenȧ, . The British Museum Collection contains three fine examples of such slabs, which are here shown.

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Vignettes and texts in hieratic copied from the Saïte Recension of the Book of the Dead in the early part of the Roman Period; all the Vignettes are in black outline and are beautifully drawn. B.M. No. 10558.

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