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४४४ । Qebḥsenu-f

The protection of Osiris [is] the protection of Qebḥsenu-f,

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first parts of these inscriptions read
mm II
I gena em äāui-a ḥer enti


àm-ȧ, "I embrace with my two arms that which is in me; the


wm being

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sekhen and

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variants for anq; frequently also they only contain the names and titles

of the deceased preceded by the words amakhi kher, "watchfully devoted to," which are followed by the names of the four gods. Often the same formula is repeated on all four jars.

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In the Saïte and Ptolemaïc Periods the character of the inscriptions on Canopic jars changes greatly. Thus in the set that was made for Tche-Bast-auf-ankh, of Her and the lady Ankhet (B.M. 22374 ff.), the inscription on the jar of Amseth begins, "Thy bread is to thee. Thy beer is to thee. Thou livest upon that on which Rā lives. [Amseth] protects the Osiris [here follow titles and genealogy] in every place to which he may journey." The inscription on the jar of Ḥapi opens with the words, "Ḥāpi says:-Thy bread is to thee by the favour of the KAU (?). Thy beer is to thee by the favour of the god Ubunu, @ J & £ Thy meat shall not be separated from thee. Ḥāpi protects the Osiris in the Khent-Åqer of Osiris, the Prince dwelling in Ta-she (the Fayyûm) of Osiris, the Soul of the Ţuat of Un-Nefer," The inscription on the jar of

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Tuamutef reads:-" Tuamutef gives thee thy bread in the Hall of the House of Rā . .. The Osiris shall be with his Ka for ever. Thy heart (mind?) is to thee in the House of the Heart[s]. Thy breast is to thee in the House of the Breast[s]. Thou livest like Rā among them. Thy food is with that of the gods of heaven, thy portion is among them. Thy body is everlastingness, [thou] art complete (?) for ever." The opening words of this passage are taken from the first part of Chapter XXVI of the Book of the Dead. The inscription on the jar of Qebḥsenuf begins :-" Qebḥsenuf gives thee purification (or, washing). Thou appearest before thy son, thou appearest before Horus, appearing from Atem, appearing from

. . Thou shalt act by day and by night as the overseer of the gods who are helpless. Qebḥsenuf endows the Osiris with a spirit before the gods who are the judges of eternity." Thus from first to last in this set of jars the object of the inscriptions is to procure funerary offerings for the deceased, and the protecting goddesses are not mentioned.


THE Canopic jars that were made for the viscera of men of high rank were usually placed in rectangular chests, the interior of which was divided into four equal spaces by wooden partitions, and these chests were placed in the tomb with the mummy. It is probable that, when the ceremony that took place in the tomb in accordance with Chapters CXXXVII and CLI of the Book of the Dead was performed, the jars were removed from the chest and each placed in its duly appointed corner of the mummy chamber. In the Vignettes of the papyri and in pictures on coffins the four jars are frequently depicted as standing in a row under the mummy as it lies on its bier. But many sets of jars have been found in sealed chests, and it is tolerably clear that in most cases the jars remained in the chests after they were carried to the tomb. The chests are from about 18 inches to 24 inches square, and are made of the wood of the sycamore-fig tree; see the chests of Sen and Guatep (XIIth dynasty) in the British Museum (30722, 30838). The alabaster jars of the latter have wooden heads. At a later period the Canopic chest was made in the form of a pylon and mounted on runners, so that it might be drawn to the tomb in the funeral procession. On the chest of Nebi,

(B.M. 35808), the sons of Horus

and the four allied goddesses are painted in white outline on a black ground. On one end are Neith and Serqit, and on the other Isis and Nephthys, and on one side are Mestȧ and Ḥāpi, and on the other Tuamutef and Qebḥsenuf. On the outside of the cover is a figure of the goddess Nut. Sometimes, as in the case of the chest

of Ḥentmeḥit (B.M. 51813), the box is painted black and is without inscriptions. The priestesses of Amen-Ra of the XXIst dynasty revived many of the funeral customs of the XIth and XIIth dynasties, and it seems that more Canopic chests were made during the rule of the Priest-kings than at any other period of Egyptian History. An interesting class of sepulchral boxes comes from Akhmîm, the ancient Panopolis, which deserves special mention. The largest of them in the British Museum (18210) is 3 feet long and 3 feet high. Each side tapers slightly towards the top, and is in the shape of a pylon. The hollow cornice is ornamented with yellow, black, and red lines upon a white ground. Beneath it are two rows of ornaments: the first is formed by, and the second by repeated several times. Beneath each line is a row of five-rayed stars ★★★★★. The front of the box is ornamented

with fff and uraei wearing disks and a winged disk.

Behind is a hawk upon a pedestal, before which is an altar with offerings. On the right-hand side is Thoth, with both hands raised, pouring out a libation; and on the left is a hawk-headed deity with both hands raised, also pouring out a libation. On the back of the box is a hawk, with extended wings, and sceptres §. On the right-hand side of the box is a figure of the deceased, kneeling,

having his left hand raised, and above him are two cartouches 00

Behind him are three jackal-headed deities, each having his left arm raised, while his right hand is clenched and laid upon his stomach. On the left-hand side of the box the deceased is represented in the same attitude, and behind him are three hawk-headed deities. These six gods form the Vignettes of the CXIIth and CXIIIth Chapters of the Book of the Dead; the hawk-headed were called Horus, Mestà, and Ḥāpi, and the jackal-headed Horus, Tuamutef and Qebḥsenuf; they are figured in Lanzone, Dizionario, Tav. XXVI. In two sides of the box are two pairs of rectangular openings about 6 inches from each end;1 the use of these is unknown to me.


THE Egyptians, in common with many other peoples, both ancient and modern, in all parts of Africa, were in the habit of using a head-rest or pillow during sleep, and in all essentials it has remained unchanged in shape and form. At a very early period the head-rest that a man had used during his lifetime was buried with him in his

1 For the description of a similar box see my article in Proc. Soc. Bib. Arch., 1886, Pp. 120-122.

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Painted wooden sepulchral chest in the form of a pylon, with figures
of the amulets of Isis and Osiris. XXVIth dynasty or later. B.M.

No. 43433.

Rectangular painted limestone shrine, with
pyramidal roof, of Ani, a gardener of Amen.
On each side, in relief, is a figure of the deceased
holding a tablet inscribed with a hymn to Rā.
XVIIIth dynasty. B.M. No. 561.

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