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. This sign is usually read “Ḥui” or “Nekhti,” but neither of these words can possibly be the original of the Semempses of Manetho. It is now assumed that the sign in the list from which the scribes were copying was , which is read Shemsu,

A, s , and means "Follower" (of some god); this word is perhaps the original of the Semempses of Manetho. The objects found in his tomb at Abydos tell us nothing about the events of his reign, and but for the three figures of this king which are sculptured on the rock-tablet at Wâdî Maghârah in the Peninsula of Sinai nothing would be known of the invasion of this country by the Egyptians. The king no doubt wanted the control of the mines whence came copper and the beautiful green stone mefkat (malachite), which the Egyptians of all periods prized so highly. The last king of the dynasty was Qā,

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whose Nebti name was Sen, ↓


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on the Abydos List 4, Qebḥ, and on the Tablet of Ṣakkârah


JQebhu. The Greek Lists give for this king's name

Bieneches, Bienthes and Vibestes.

The Second Dynasty. From This.

The kings of this dynasty were nine in number, and the statue No. 1 at Cairo (published by Grébaut in Le Musée Égyptien, pl. xiii) shows that the first three were Hetepi-sekhemui,

, who

some think was the Betchau,1, of the Abydos List and the Boethos of Manetho, Nebrā Kakau (Kaiechos), and Enneter with the Nesu-båt name of Ba-en-neter, the Binothris of Manetho. Kakau is said to have established (re-established ?) the worship of the Apis Bull at Memphis, the Mnevis Bull at Heliopolis, and the Ram of Mendes, animals that had probably been worshipped in these towns from time immemorial. The introduction of the name of Rā into his name proves that the influence of the priests of this foreign Sun-god at Heliopolis was already very considerable. In the time of Enneter "it was decided that women might

1 Hall thinks that Betchau is a misreading by the ancient scribes of the Horus name of Narmer, Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. I, p. 267.

hold the imperial government," which suggests that the old African matriarchal system, which had probably been in abeyance, was re-established. Of Uatchnes, the fourth king, nothing is known, except that he appears to represent the Tlas of Manetho.2 The next king, according to the Abydos List, was Sență, the Sethenes of Manetho, but the monuments mention a king of this period whose Horus name was Sekhem-åb,


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But according to some3 this

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king had a second Horus name, Perenmaāt and he is remarkable as possessing a name as the representative of Set,

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Sekhem-åb and Uatchnes as one and the same king; of King Sența nothing is known. The next king, Karā, the Chaeres of Manetho, of whom nothing is known, was succeeded by Neferkarā, in whose time "the Nile flowed with honey during eleven days."4 According to the King-Lists the last two kings of this dynasty were Neferka-Seker

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the Sesochris of Manetho, "whose height was five cubits and his breadth three," and Hutchefa ; some writers identify the former with Kha-Sekhem and the latter with Kha-sekhemui, but these are probably one and the same king, the founder of the IIIrd dynasty. It is important to note the early appearance of the name of the god Seker in the royal name Nefer-ka-Seker. Seker was the god of Death of the inhabitants of Memphis, and his name survives in a disguised form in Sakkarah," by which name the modern Egyptians call the district that represents the great necropolis of Memphis.

The Third Dynasty. From Memphis.


, who

The first king of this dynasty was Khā-sekhem, later called himself Khā-sekhemui, ; the first form of his name is that which he adopted as the representative of Horus, and the second shows that he considered himself to be the successor

1 Cory, Ancient Fragments, ed. Hodges, p. 113.

2 For Hall's theory about this name see Cambridge Ancient History, p. 275. Petrie, History (revised edition, 1923), p. 33.

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of both Horus and Set. His personal name was Besh. Some think that Kha-sekhem and Kha-sekhemui were two distinct kings, and that the former was Nefer-ka-Seker and the latter Hutchefa of the King-Lists. Others think that Kha-sekhem is the Tchatchai or Bebi of the KingLists, and the Necherophes of the Greek Lists. According to Manetho, "in his time the Libyans revolted from the Egyptians; but on account of an unexpected increase of the moon, they surrendered themselves for fear."2 Since the inscription on a statue of the king states that as a result of his fighting in the North, i.e., Lower Egypt, he slew 47,209 of the enemy, it is clear that Kha-sekhem and Necherophes are one and the same king. His queen was called Enmaātḥāp, a name that shows she was associated with the cult of Apis at Memphis, and she was the mother of Tcheser. A large number of objects bearing the names of Khā-sekhem were found by Mr. Quibell at Hierakonpolis, but the king himself was buried at Abydos. According to Petrie (p. 37) the tomb building measured 223 by 54 feet, and the chamber that was intended to hold the body was built of stone and measured 17 by 10 by 6 feet. The chambers close by contained vases in stone and copper, flint and copper weapons, jars of various shapes and sizes, grain, etc.



Kha-sekhemui was succeeded by his son Tcheser, Tchesersa,, whose Horus name was Khatneter, He built the so-called Step Pyramid at Sakkârah.3 remarkable building, which may have covered the king's tomb, is nearly 200 feet high, and was probably surmounted by a shrine containing the figure of a god, perhaps in animal form. This building may be compared with the " stepped towers" and stupas and topes which have been built in India and the neighbouring countries from time immemorial. Manetho says that "Tosorthros," i.e., Tcheser, was called Asclepius (i.e., Aesculapius) by the Egyptians for his medical knowledge, and that he built a house of hewn stones and greatly patronized writing. There is no evidence in the texts that Tcheser was called either Aesculapius or Imḥetep, the famous Egyptian demi-god with whom the Greek god of medicine was, at a later period, identified. But there is proof that Tcheser's architect was called Imḥetep and that he was famed for his wisdom 5 and great knowledge of medicine. Under the New Kingdom he

1 It is written thus

2 Cory, op. cit., p. 113.

• Specimens of the green-glazed faïence tiles which lined two of the chambers under the building may be seen in the British Museum, No. 2437 ff.

• Cory, op. cit.,

P. 113.

Thus in the XIth dynasty, Antef couples his name with that of Hertataf. See Budge, Gods of the Egyptians, Vol. I, p. 522 ff., and Sethe, Imhotep, Leipzig, 1902.

was worshipped as a god, and many bronze figures of him are to be seen in our great museums.1 In Memphis, which was the chief seat of his cult, he was declared to be the son of Ptaḥ and the goddess Sekhmit. An inscription cut on a granite boulder on the Island of Sahil in the First Cataract states that a terrible famine occurred in Egypt in the reign of Tcheser because the Nile ceased to rise for seven years. The statement may be a fact, but the inscription was composed during the Ptolemaïc Period, probably by the priests of the local god of the First Cataract, with the view of enhancing their own importance. The king's maṣṭabah tomb was discovered at Bêt Khallâf by Garstang in 1891; it is built of brick and is about 300 feet long and 150 feet wide. Little is known of the reign of Tcheser, but it seems that he was very active as a builder, and that he was the first king of Egypt to erect the "stepped tower, which later took the form of a true pyramid. The reliefs at Wâdî Maghârah show that he maintained the control of the Egyptians over the copper mines in Sinai. From the Westcar Papyrus (ed. Erman, Berlin, 1890) we learn that Tcheser was interested in magic, and that his chief Kher-heb was a man of remarkable learning and possessed great skill in the working of magic. The same document mentions King Nebka, whose place in the IIIrd dynasty cannot be fixed with certainty.

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Tcheser's successor was probably the king whose Horus name was Sanekht, and whose tomb was discovered by Garstang at Bêt Khallâf. The Egyptian and Greek King-Lists give the names of several kings, Teta (Atet), Setches, Tcheser-teta and Aḥtes, but nothing is known of them. The last king but one of this dynasty was Ḥuni, who, according to the Prisse Papyrus (pl. i, 1. 7), was the predecessor of Seneferu, and is probably to be identified with the Neferkara of the Abydos List and the Kerpheres of Manetho. The last king of this dynasty was Seneferu, and under his rule the power of Egypt waxed great, and the Peninsula of Sinai and a portion of the Egyptian Sûdân were added to her territories. The reliefs on the rocks at Wâdî Maghârah proclaim his conquest of the country, and his invasion of the Sûdân must have been on a very comprehensive scale, for the Stele of Palermo states that he brought back from that country 7,000 living prisoners and 200,000 cattle, large and small. He built a fleet of ships which were not less than 150 feet in length, and lighters or cargo boats, each of which was

1 E.g., Brit. Mus. 27357 and 579.

The Egyptian text with an English translation will be found in Budge, Legends of the Gods, London, 1912, p. 120.

* In 1924 Mr. C. J. Firth, of the Cairo Museum, excavated some remarkable stone buildings close by the Step Pyramid; in some of the chambers were fluted stone pillars.

But if the large cubit of 20 inches is

Reckoning the cubit at 18 inches. intended the ships were 1663 feet in length.

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