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next king who exercised any real power was Sekhemkhutauirā Sebekhetep I, whose name is found on the rocks at Samnah in connection with the registers of the heights of the Nile during the Inundations of the first four years of his reign. There were several kings called Sebekhetep, whose true sequence cannot be stated, and Sebekemsaf and Sebekemsauf; all these were votaries of the Crocodile-god Sebek and they may have belonged to the family of Amenemḥat III, the founder of Crocodilopolis. Sebekḥetep II was succeeded by Neferḥetep, who took the prenomen of Khasesheshra, the son of the priest Ḥaankhf by the princess Kema,
A . His wife was called Senseneb, and he had four children. He was a zealous votary of Osiris, and he established the worship of this god at Abydos in accordance with the information on the subject that he derived from a perusal of the rolls of papyri in the library of the great temple at Heliopolis.1 He seems to have had a co-regent in his brother, who became Sebekhetep III, with the prenomen Khāneferrā. Sebekḥetep III was the greatest king of the dynasty, and his rule extended from the northern Delta to the foot of the Fourth Cataract. He built a temple on the Island of Argo (Arkaw or Argaw), near Dongola, and had two statues of himself, each about 24 feet high, quarried to set up before it.2 The temple suggests that there was an Egyptian garrison near to protect the caravans from the South and to receive the gold which came from there. The granite statue of Sekhemuatchtauira in the British Museum was found near this place. Among the kings of the XIVth dynasty, who were said to come from Xoïs,3 were Mermashāu, who ruled from Tanis, where two statues of him were found among the ruins of the temple of Ptaḥ, and Neḥsi or Rāneḥsi, who also seems to have ruled from Tanis. These were probably contemporaries of the earlier Theban kings of the XIIIth dynasty. Among the last kings of the XIIIth dynasty must come Antef-a Herḥermaātsesheshra, Antef-a his brother, Antef-a Upmaatsesheshra, and Åntef-a Nubkheperrā. The monuments show that the last of these possessed considerable power in Egypt, and his tomb is mentioned in the Abbott Papyrus. The principal document of his reign is a decree inscribed on a door-jamb at Coptos, which orders the expulsion of a priest of Menu from the temple of this god and the sequestration of his stipend, and forbids the employment of his sons in any priestly capacity. The delinquent Tetà, the son of Menuḥetep, had, in some way unspecified, acted disloyally and
1 The stele recording the fact was published by Mariette, Catalogue, tom. II, pl. 28 ff. They were quarried on the Island of Tombos near Karmah.
I, Coptic cwor, the Sakhâ L of the Arabs.
For the text see Petrie, Coptos, pl. VIII.
Head of a colossal statue of Amenemhat III, a king of the XIIth dynasty, which was usurped by Osorkon II, about B.C. 866. B.M. No. 1064.
Red granite statue of Sekhem-uatch-taui-Rā, a king of the XIIIth or XIVth dynasty. From Arko in the Egyptian Sûdân. B.M. No. 871.
Flint agglomerate statue of Kha-em-Uast, eldest son of Rameses II. XIXth dynasty, B.M. No. 947.
treasonably against his god and king. Another king who reigned towards the end of the XIIIth dynasty was Khentcher, whose prenomen was Enmaātrāenkhā (?)
The Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties. Hyksos.
The rule of the Kings of the XIIIth and XIVth dynasties was brought to an end by the invasion of Egypt through her north-east frontiers by a confederation of nomad tribes that made their way into the Delta and destroyed the temples and burned the towns and enslaved the people. The native documents, of course, say nothing about these people, though they are referred to in later inscriptions as the " filthy ones," Manetho calls
them Hykshos, or " Shepherd-Kings," and Josephus Hyksos, adding the same explanation of the name as Manetho. The form of the name given by Manetho represents the Egyptian Δ M¦, HEQU Shasu, i.e., ¦, ḤEQU SHASU, i.e., “Shasu-Chiefs," but in this we no doubt see the plural form of the equivalent of the title that the
Hyksos king Khian adopted as his own, 14M, HEQ SEMTU,1
"Prince of the deserts." Manetho knew quite well that the desert folk were nomads, shasu, and that they were shepherds by profession, but robbers of caravans whenever they had an opportunity. There were Semites of many kinds among them, men from Sinai and Palestine, and Syrians. But the host that invaded the Delta and occupied it must have had among them men with military training who were armed with effective weapons and probably led by officers skilled in the arts of war, who were determined to occupy the Delta and rule the country. No mere confederation of nomad tribes bent on plunder could have done what they did. Manetho says the kings of the XVth dynasty were of Phoenician or Canaanitish origin, but some authorities think that they were Syrians supported by Aryans, and that they invaded Egypt with chariots and horses, to which the Egyptians were strangers. Manetho gives the names of six of these kings, viz., Salatis, Beon (or Bnon), Pachnan (or Apachnas), Staan, Archlês (or Assis) and Aphôbis2 (or Apôphis). They ruled from Memphis,
1 Budge, History of Egypt, Vol. III, 1902, p. 138.
is now read khas-t
is known. Thus we have
2 The Rhind Papyrus (Brit. Mus., No. 10058) was written in the reign of Aphôbis (Apepȧ I).
the old capital, and from Avaris,
He-t Uar, a new capital which they founded in the Eastern Delta. When the invaders were settled in the Delta, little by little they began to assume titles like the old Pharaohs, and we find that one of them,
whom Manetho calls “Aphôbis," in Egyptian Apepȧ,
enclosed his name in a cartouche and adopted the prenomen Auserrā as King of the South and North. Another king of the
name adopted a Horus name, Seḥeteptaui, ₪
"Pacifier of the Two Lands," and he and many others called themselves "son of Ra." One of the most important of the Hyksos kings was Khian,
(the Iannas of Manetho),
whose names are found on the basalt lion weight in the British Museum (No. 987), which George Smith, the Assyriologist, purchased in Baghdâd, and on a statue discovered by Naville at Bubastis.1 Mariette discovered at Ṣân (Tanis) a stele2 mentioning a king called Nubti, with the prenomen of Setāpeḥti, and stating that he reigned 400 years before Rameses II; but some think that Nubti was the god Set, and that the period is mythological. The names of a great many Hyksos kings and princes are known from scarabs, but it is impossible to arrange them chronologically at present; some of the names are manifestly Semitic, but the greater number of them are not. The exact length of the reigns of the Hyksos is unknown, but it probably did not exceed 200 years.
The Seventeenth Dynasty.
According to Manetho the Hyksos kings of this dynasty were 43 in number, and they reigned 151 years; the Theban kings were also 43 in number, and they reigned 151 years. These statements have no historical value. The monuments make it quite clear that the Theban kings were in subjection to the Hyksos, for remains found at Gebelên prove that these hated foreigners were the de facto lords of Upper Egypt. The American excavators at Dafûfah, near Karmah, at the head of the Third Cataract, found that the "Plain of Potsherds "4 was covered with masses of pottery of the Hyksos Period, and on the north side of Dafûfah they found a "Hyksos cemetery." The question which now arises naturally is,
1 On the vase cover inscribed with this king's name found by Sir A. Evans at Knossos; see the Annual of the British School at Athens, Vol. VII, p. 65. Described by de Rougé in Rev. Arch., tom. IX, 1864, and figured in Budge, History of Egypt, Vol. III, p. 157.
For lists see Newberry, Scarabs, p. 150 ff.; Budge, Book of Kings, Vol. I, p. 93 ff.
See the Bulletin, Boston, December, 1915, p. 71.