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South (Nesut (Bati

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), which was indicated by. When the

priests of Rā gained supreme power under the IVth and Vth dynasties they made the king adopt a fifth name as the Son of Ra The Horus-name was written in a rectangular frame called SEREKH which some think means " royal

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house," and others "banner," but there is reason for saying that the serekh represents a funerary building, and that the name in it is the king's "cognizance," and the name of his Ka. The drawing given here gives a good idea of its general form, and the name inside it, NEB MAAT, "Lord of Truth," is the Horus name of Seneferu, the last king of the IIIrd or first king of the IVth dynasty. The Nesubȧti and Son-of-Rā names are written inside an oval which is commonly called cartouche1 (i.e., cartridge), a word derived through the French from the Italian cartoccio. It is probable that this oval, or "elliptical ring," was originally circular in form, like the hieroglyphic Q which represents a cylindrical seal being rolled over the mud which is to receive the impression. The connection between the cartouche and the seal seems obvious. In the following list it is only possible to give a selection of the names of each king.2

PRE-DYNASTIC KINGS: 1. KINGS OF LOWER EGYPT

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1 The use of this word in this sense was inaugurated by Champollion. * For a list of all the royal names see Budge, The Book of the Kings of Egypt, 2 vols., London, 1908, and Gauthier, Livre des Rois, Paris, 1916 ff.

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