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CONTENTS

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PREPACE .

· page vii

THE LAND OF EGYPT AND ITS DIVISIONS:

Upper Egypt, Lower Egypt, the Heptanomis, the Oases, etc.

The NOMES OF EGYPT:

Upper Egypt.

3

Lower Egypt.

5

Districts of Nubia .

6

THE NILE AND THE ANNUAL INUNDATION

7

THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS, THE LIBYANS, HAMITES, ETC.

9

EGYPTIAN CHRONOLOGY:

The King-Lists and Manetho of Sebennytus. The Sothic Period.

Modern Systems of Chronology

OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF EGYPT:

Palaeolithic, Neolithic and Dynastic Periods

The Old Kingdom. Dynasties I-VI

Period of Anarchy. Dynasties VII and VIII

37

Herakleopolitan Rule. Dynasties IX and X

The Middle Kingdom. Dynasties XI and XII

39

Period of Anarchy. Dynasties XIII and XIV

45

Hyksos Kings. Dynasties XV and XVI

47

The Kings of Upper Egypt expel the Hyksos. Dynasty XVII

XVII

49

The New Kingdom. Dynasties XVIII-XX

49

Priest-Kings and Kings at Tanis

. Dynasty xxi

70

Libyans ruling at Bubastis. Dynasty XXII

71

Period of unsettled Rule. Dynasties XXIII and XXIV

xxiv

72

Nubian Kings. Dynasty XXV

73

Kings ruling at Saïs. Dynasty XXVI

76

Persian Kings. Dynasty XXVII

78

Persian Kings. Dynasty XXVIII

80

Native Kings rule. Dynasties XXIX and XXX

80

Macedonians and Ptolemies

81

Romans rule Egypt

81

Byzantines and Muḥammadans

82

LIST OF THE NESUBÅTI AND SON-OF-RĀ NAMES OF THE PRINCIPAL

KINGS OF EGYPT

THE DECIPHERMENT OF THE EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHS:

The Rosetta Stone and the Obelisk from Philae.

Greek Writers on Egyptian Hieroglyphs

127

John Tzetzes.

128

Hermapion

133

Clement of Alexandria

134

Horapollo

137

Kircher.

138

Zoega.

139

Young and Champollion and their Successors

140

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194

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221

Opinions of Egyptologists on the Labours of Young and Cham-

pollion

155

Method of Decipherment

162

Egyptian Hieroglyphic Alphabet

163

Coptic Alphabet

164

THE EGYPTIAN LANGUAGE .

164

EGYPTIAN WRITING:

Hieroglyphic, Hieratic and Demotic.

168

EGYPTIAN WRITING MATERIALS:

Papyrus, Leather, etc.

172

WRITING IMPLEMENTS:

Palette, Reed, Ink-pot and Ink, Scribe's Wrist-rest

173

A LIST OF THE COMMONEST HIEROGLYPHS

178

A LIST OF THE COMMONEST DETERMINATIVES

THE MUMMY, METHODS OF MUMMIFYING, ETC.

203

MUMMY LABELS

214

MUMMY CLOTH, BYSSUS AND AKHMÎM SWATHINGS.

215

SPINDLES, WHORLS AND HECKLING COMBS

217

THE MUMMY-GRID AND MUMMY-BOARD

219

THE CARTONNAGE MUMMY-CASE

BEADWORK ON MUMMIES

PAINTED AND INSCRIBED LINEN SHROUDS

MODELS OF PERSONAL ATTENDANTS AND SLAVES IN THE TOMB

223

MUMMY LABELS OR TICKETS

224

THE BOOK OF THE DEAD:

Pyramid Texts

226

Texts on Coffins of the Middle Kingdom

227

Theban Recension and its Publication

228

Saïte Recension

236

Demotic Books of the Dead

238

ANOINTING TABLETS AND THE SEVEN HOLY OILS :

239

THE VASES OF THE FOUR SONS OF HORUS, OR "CANOPIC" JARS

240

CHESTS FOR “CANOPIC" JARS

245

THE HEAD-REST, OR PILLOW

246

PECTORALS IN PORCELAIN AND STEATITE

249

SHAUABTIU, OR USHABTIU FIGURES

251

USHABTIU IN SMALL SARCOPHAGI AND COFFINS

256

OBJECTS FOR THE TOILET:

Stibium and the Stibium (Kohl) Pot or Tube

259

The Kohl-stick or Needle

262

The Mirror and Mirror-case

263

Tweezers, Strigil, Pumice Stone, Hair-pins, Combs

264

The Toilet-box

264

Perfumes, Perfumed Oils, Unguents and Pastes, Pomades, Lip-salve,

Soap, and hinnä Juice for staining the Nails

265

BEADS AND NECKLACES, RINGS, BRACELETS, ARMLETS, ETC.

266

THE CYLINDRICAL SEAL, OR SEAL-CYLINDER .

270

THE SCARAB AND THE SCARABAEUS SACER

The Scarab as a Seal, Button Seals

280, 288

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