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branches of the human race have come, in the way of gradual variation, from one original type? and second, If intrinsically possible, can it have been done within the limited space of time which, with the most pliant Scripture chronology, we are able to allow for it? These questions, however, though properly separate, so run into each other, that it will be more easy to consider them together.
The affirmative of both of them is argued, 1. From the superficial character of these diversities; 2. The actual changes which have been observed as taking place in particular circumstances of the race; 3.* From the analogy of similar changes which have occurred in other animals, particularly in those most nearly associated with man, and subject to the same general influences that have operated on him.
1. Naturalists are not agreed as to the number of sub-races into which the human family should be divided. Some make two only, the white and the black. Morton reckons twenty-two, and Burke sixty-three. Agassiz makes eight principal centers of creation, which he calls "zoological provinces,” viz., the Arctic, the Mongolian, the European, the American, the Negro, the Hottentot, the Malay, and the Australian. But whatever be the number, it is now regarded as settled that the differences between them are not specific — that the entire genus homo consists of but a single species.
In this position all the best authorities are agreed. "Linnæus, Blumenbach, Cuvier, Lawrence, Camper, Dr. Prichard, Humboldt, Zimmerman, Pickering, and many other distinguished naturalists, consider the species as sufficiently proved; and the French Academy of Science, in one of its reports, speaking of Blumenbach, remarks that 'a profound gulf, without connection or passage, separates the human species from every other. There is no other species that is akin to the human, nor any genus whatever. The human race stands alone.'"*
This is proved, first, from the fact that " there is an essential identity among men of all races in physical and mental characteristics.” | Our space will not allow us to go over the whole field, and show this fact in detail. Dr. Bachman, in his " Doctrine of the Unity of the Human Race,” adduces a large number of particulars in the osteological structure of man in which the various races are identical. Professor Godron, the distinguished French naturalist, in the second chapter of his great work, f treats * Dr. John Hall, in Pickering's Races of Men, Introd. p. 27. † Professor J. D. Dana, Geology, p. 584.
| De l’Espèce et des Races dans les êtres Organisés, et specialement de l'Unité de l’Espèce Humaine. Par D: A. Godron, Docteur en Médecine, Docteur ès Sciences, Doyen de la Faculté des Sciences de Nancy, Professeur d'Histoire Naturelle à la même Faculté, Directeur du Jardin des Plantes, etc. 2 vols., 8vo.
of the organic, physiological, and psychological differences which were present among themselves, and compares them with those which are shown among domestic animals. He takes into view all the variations in the form of the skull, and bones in other parts of the body, the size, color of the skin, color and quality of the hair, etc., etc., and draws from the whole the following conclusion : "The organic and physiological differences seen in the different varieties of mankind are analogous to those which are known to exist among the domestic animals, and the psychological differences of the different peoples of the earth are neither original nor permanent.” And Professor Owen, than whom there is no greater authority on topics of this kind, says, " With regard to the value to be assigned to the distinctions of race, in consequence of not any of these differences being equivalent to those characteristics of the skeleton or other parts of the frame upon which specific differences are founded by naturalists in reference to the rest of the animal creation, I have come to the conclusion that man forms one species, and that differences are but indicative of varicties. ... These varieties merge into each other by easy gradations. The Malay and the Polynesian link the Mongolian and the Indian (Indo-European] - varieties, and the Indian is linked by the Esqui
maux again to the Mongolian. The inhabitants of the Andaman Islands, New Guinea, New Caledonia, and Australia, in a minor degree, seem to fill up the hiatus between the Malay and the Ethiopian varieties; and in no case can a well-marked, definite line be drawn between the physical characteristics of allied varieties, these merging more or less gradationally the one into the other.”* " The unity of the human species is demonstrated by the constancy of those osteological and dental characters to which the attention is more particularly directed in the investigation of the corresponding characters in the higher quadrumana.” f
2. In the ascending scale of animals the number of species in any genus diminishes as we rise, and should, by analogy, be the smallest at the head of the series. Professor Dana states this rule thus : " Among the mammals the higher genera have few species, and the highest group next to man — that of the orang outang — contains only eight, and these eight belong to two genera. · · · Analogy requires that man should here have the preëminence. If more than one species be admitted, there is scarcely a limit to the number that may be made.” I The different varieties shade off into each other by
* Lect. before Cambridge University, May 10, 1859, p. 98. + Ibid. p. 103.
Geology, p. 584.
insensible gradations. "Some," says Bachman, * " have divided man into two species, some into three, some into five, one into eight separate creations, and one, more enthusiastic than all the rest, can see no reason why 'there were not originally a hundred species.' (Nott's Bib. Hist. p. 33.)” A position which thus violates one of the great principles that rule through the whole animal world can not be admitted without the most stringent necessity.
3. All the varieties of the race are capable of intermixture, and the mixed breeds have the power of self-perpetuation to any extent, which is not true of hybrids between two distinct species. It is a law both of the animal and vegetable kingdoms, that the union of different species can never produce a perpetually fertile offspring. In other words, the distinction of species through the whole realm of life is fixed and permanent, it is never obliterated by intermixtures; it is extinguished only by the extinction of the race itself. This law is set forth so clearly and forcibly by Professor Dana, † that we take leave to quote it in full.
" PERMANENCE OF SPECIES. “What now may we infer with regard to the permanence or fixedness of species from a general survey of nature? * * Examination of the Character of Genera and Species, p. 18.
In the Bib. Sacra for October, 1857, pp. 862-866.