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Peru the first man created by the divine power was called Alpa Camasca,'animated earth.' Among the tribes of North America, the Mandans believed that the Great Spirit formed two figures of clay, which he dried and animated by the breath of his. mouth ; the one received the name of the 'first man,' the other that of 'companion. The great god of Tahiti, Tæroa, made man of red earth, and the Dyacks of Borneo, stubbornly opposed to all Moslem influences, repeated from generation to generation that man had been formed from the earth.” *

The following view of the Hindu cosmogony I take from the Laws of Manu, written probably in the seventh or eighth century before Christ. It is regarded by the Hindus as a revelation from Brahma.

" This universe existed only in darkness, imperceptible, undefinable, undiscoverable by reason, undiscovered, as if it were wholly immersed in sleep. Then the self-existing power, himself undiscovered, but making this world discernible with five elements and other principles, appeared with undiminished glory, dispelling the gloom. He whom the mind alone can perceive, whose essence eludes the external organs, who has no visible parts, who exists from eternity ; even He, the soul of all beings, whom

* Anc. Hist. of the East, pp. 9, 10.

no being can comprehend, shone: forth in person. He having willed to produce various beings from his own substance, first, with a thought, created the waters, and placed in them a productive seed. The seed became an egg, bright as gold, blazing like the luminary, with a thousand beams; and in that egg he was born himself in the form of Brahma, * the great forefather of all spirits. The waters are called Nara because they were the offspring of Nara, the Supreme Spirit, and as in them his first ayana (progress) in the character of Brahmā took place, he is thence Narayana (he whose place of moving was the waters). From that which is, the cause, not the object, of sense, existing everywhere in substance, not existing to our perception, without beginning or end, was produced the divine male, famed in all the worlds as Brahmā. In that egg the great power sat inactive a whole year of the Creator, at the close of which, by his thought alone, he caused the egg to divide itself, and from its two divisions he framed the heaven above and the earth beneath ; in the midst he placed the subtile ether, the eight regions, and the permanent receptacle of

* The word Brahma — the final a short as in America - is a neuter noun, denoting the abstract Supreme Spirit. The masculine Brahmā – the final vowel having the long Italian sound of ah – denotes the active Creator.

Peru the first man created by the divine power was called Alpa Camasca,' animated earth.' Among the tribes of North America, the Mandans believed that the Great Spirit formed two figures of clay, which he dried and animated by the breath of his. mouth ; the one received the name of the 'first man,' the other that of 'companion.' The great god of Tahiti, Teroa, made man of red earth, and the Dyacks of Borneo, stubbornly opposed to all Mosjem influences, repeated from generation to generation that man had been formed from the earth.” *

The following view of the Hindu cosmogony I take from the Laws of Manu, written probably in the seventh or eighth century before Christ. It is regarded by the Hindus as a revelation from Brahma.

"This universe existed only in darkness, imperceptible, undefinable, undiscoverable by reason, undiscovered, as if it were wholly immersed in sleep. Then the self-existing power, himself undiscovered, but making this world discernible with five elements and other principles, appeared with undiminished glory, dispelling the gloom. He whom the mind alone can perceive, whose essence eludes the external organs, who has no visible parts, who exists from eternity ; even He, the soul of all beings, whom

* Anc. Hist. of the East, pp. 9, 10 ,

no being can comprehend, shone. forth in person. He having willed to produce various beings from his own substance, first, with a thought, created the waters, and placed in them a productive seed. The seed became an egg, bright as gold, blazing like the luminary, with a thousand beams; and in that egg he was born himself in the form of Brahma, * the great forefather of all spirits. The waters are called Nara because they were the offspring of Nara, the Supreme Spirit, and as in them his first ayana (progress) in the character of Brahmā took place, he is thence Narayana (he whose place of moving was the waters). From that which is, the cause, not the object, of sense, existing everywhere in substance, not existing to our perception, without beginning or end, was produced the divine male, famed in all the worlds as Brahmā. In that egg · the great power sat inactive a whole year of the

Creator, at the close of which, by his thought alone, he caused the egg to divide itself, and from its two divisions he framed the heaven above and the earth beneath ; in the midst he placed the subtile ether, the eight regions, and the permanent receptacle of

* The word Brahma — the final a short as in America - is a neuter noun, denoting the abstract Supreme Spirit. The masculine Brahmā – the final vowel having the long Italian sound of ah – denotes the active Creator.

the waters. . i . He gave being to time ani' the divisions of time; to the stars also, and the planets; to rivers, oceans, and mountains; to level plains and uneven valleys; to devotion, speech, complacency, desire, and wrath; and to creation. For the sake of distinguishing .action, he made a total difference between right and wrong.

"That the human race might be multiplied, he caused the Brahman, the Kshatriya, the Vaishya, and the Shudra (the four castes) to proceed from his mouth, his arm, his thigh, and his foot. Having divided his own substance, the mighty power became half male and half female, and from that female he produced Viraj. Know me, O most excellent Brahmans, to be that person, whom the male power Viraj produced by himself — Me, the secondary framer of all this visible world.”

The resemblances between this cosmogony and the Scripture account of the creation are striking. First, the Supreme Deity, shining forth upon the darkness of chaos; then the creation of the waters; the formation of the heaven above and the earth beneath, with the air and clouds between; the celestial bodies, and the divisions of time; the mountains, valleys, and plains; and, lastly, man himself. It is remarkable, also, that, as in the Bible, the act of creation is attributed not to the Supreme Spirit, the

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