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my response again is, that as the two schools of geologists now named differ widely in their translation of geologic time of all phenomena of the kind here described, this question ... does not admit, in the present state of the science, of a specific or quantitative answer. '

" In conclusion, then, of the whole inquiry, condensing into one expression my answer to the general question whether a remote pre-historic antiquity for the human race has been established from the recent discovery of specimens of man's handiwork in the so-called Diluvium, I maintain that it is not proven, - by no means asserting that it can be disproved, but insisting simply that it remains Not Proven.Blackw. Mag., Oct., 1860, p. 438.

The valley of the Somme is confessedly the most important locality in which human relics have been found indicative of a high human antiquity. I shall not, therefore, go into an examination of other similar localities in France, Sicily, and elsew here, nor of the "bone caverns” in England, Belgium, etc. To the evidence they furnish, the same arguments apply as those which have now been advanced ; indeed, the matured opinions of Professor Rogers and others, which we have cited, were professedly given in view of all the facts presented by them.


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6. There is another class of facts which is often adduced for the same purpose as the preceding, derived from extensive human remains found in peat beds, in shell mounds, or ancient rubbish heaps, and in the lakes of Switzerland, and other parts of Europe.

These peat beds in the Danish islands are from ten to thirty feet deep, and contain trunks of firs, oaks, and birches, of great size, and of species not now growing in that country. There are found in them flint, bronze, and iron implements, with the bones of man and the various domestic animals. The refuse mounds consist mostly of collections of oyster and clam shells, mingled with bones of quadrupeds, birds, and fish, flint knives, hatchets, and arrows, fragments of pottery, etc. They are called by the Danes kjökken-mödding, i. e., kitchen refuse heaps, composed as they are so largely of the remains of animals used for food. The relics found in the lakes indicate the former existence of villages built upon piles in the shallow waters.

All these traces of man prove the existence of tribes of a pre-historic people inhabiting the greater part of Europe, the memorials of which are otherwise lost in remote antiquity. A careful study of these remains has led investigators to divide them

into three classes, according to the periods in which they are supposed to have lived, called respectively the stone, the bronze, and the iron age, from the materials and workmanship of the implements then in use. · The question with which we are now interested relates to the time when these primitive people existed. Sir Charles Lyell, after summing up the evidence on this point, and showing that the three ages were of very unequal antiquity, pronounces all the calculations hitherto made by archæologists and geologists of merit respecting it, "as being tentative," and "a rough approximation to the truth.” He adds, "They have led to the assignment of 4000 and 7000 years before our time as the lowest antiquity which can be ascribed to certain events and monuments; but much collateral evidence will be required to confirm these estimates, and to decide whether the number of centuries has been under or over rated.” — Geol. Evid., p. 273.

M. Frederic Troyon, in his work entitled " Habitations Lacustres des Temps Anciens et Modernes,” takes care to say, near the commencement of the volume, "To avoid all mistake, it is well to be understood that the stone age [the oldest of all], of which we find remains in the lakes and tombs, is


considered in this work as posterior to the deluge mentioned by Moses.” *

But the most important fact relating to this primitive population of Europe is, that whatever be the exact date at which they lived, they belonged to the Celtic race. Dr. Keller, than whom there is no higher authority on the subject, remarks as follows:

“ It is very evident that the earliest founders came into Middle Europe as a pastoral people, and possessed the most important domestic animals, such as the dog, the cow, the sheep, the goat, and the horse. All these animals have their origin not in Europe, but in Asia, and were brought here by the settlers through all their long wanderings from the east. They understood agriculture, and cultivated grains (wheat and barley), also flax — plants which, in like manner, they did not meet with in Europe, but brought with them out of Asia, or received them by commerce from the south.” (p. 310.)

“ It has already been remarked, that on comparing the implements of stone and bronze from the lake dwellings with those of the Swiss museums, some of which were found in graves and tumuli, and others met with by chance in the fields, we are not able to discover the smallest difference, either in material, form, or ornamentation, and we consequently consider ourselves authorized in ascrib

* Quoted in Appendix to “The Lake Dwellings,” by Dr. Keller, p. 14.

ing all these specimens, which appear to have come froni the same factories to the industry of one and the same people. The identity of the inhabitants of the main land and those of the lake dwellings appears still more striking if we compare the settlements founded by both classes of the people as well as their whole arrangement.” (p. 311.)

" In the very same graves and tumuli, implements of stone and bone, precisely alike in form, have been found lying together, and the same remark will apply in other graves to implements of bronze and iron. The products of the potter's art, also, are seen with all their characteristic peculiarities, through all the stages of their development, and form links in the outward phenomena of the different periods.” (p. 312.)

“ Knowing that history makes no mention of any other people but the Celts, who, in the very earliest ages, possessed the middle of Europe, and, in the later times, received their civilization from the Romans, we believe that it would be contrary to all the facts adduced, to arrive at any conclusion but this — that the builders of the lake dwellings were a branch of the Celtic population of Switzerland, but that the earlier settlements belong to the prehistoric period, and had already fallen into decay before the Celts took their place in the history of Europe.” (p. 313.)*

As to who the people of these earlier settlements

* The Lake Dwellings of Switzerland and other Parts of Europe, by Dr. Ferdinand Keller, Pres. Antiq. Assoc. of Zurich. . Translated by John Edward Lee, F. S. A., F. G. S., etc.

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