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were, Dr. Keller remarks, in a section entitled. * Origin and Age of the Iron Implements of Marin," " We can not refrain from once more repeating what we have stated in the previous parts of this volume. There can be no doubt that from the earliest ages the above mentioned country, and also the land beyond the Jura, was inhabited by races of a Celtic origin.” (p. 262.) *

I am not aware that this author has assigned, even by conjecture, any specific date to the relics which he describes, other than "a very high antiquity.” (p. 292.)

M. Troyon's opinion is that " the population of the first period were a primitive people, perhaps belonging to a Finnish or Iberian race, which came out of Asia several thousand years before our era, and, following the course of the Rhone, or the Rhine, wandered into the valleys of the Alps." +

If these opinions may be accepted, -and I know of none more probable, or freer from objections, they go to confirm, rather than to weaken, the scriptural chronology as to the antiquity of man. These primitive people were a branch of the great Indo-European family, the origin of which was in Asia, as was that of the domestic animals they brought with them. As to the "several thousand years before

* Appendix N. † Appendix to Lake Dwellings, p. 395..

our era,” one or two thousand are sufficient to meet all the exigencies of the case.

In view, then, of all the facts adduced by geology, we are warranted, I think, in the following definite conclusion, viz., that in order to account for every case of the existence of human relics in Western Europe, whether bones, implements, or dwellings, whether in caves or French drift, we do not need an antiquity of more than six or eight centuries before Christ, while we may go back twenty centuries and be still more than a thousand years distant from the Noachian deluge- a time sufficient to permit man to wander a long way, and do a great many things.


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The conception of Bunsen's work is a vast one. “Egypt's Place in Universal History!” Egypt! that land of pyramids; whose kings are enumerated in history under thirty distinct dynasties; whose monuments antedate the oldest historic records ; whose language has consumed the lives of some of the greatest scholars; the source whence the wisest of the ancient Greeks drew their wisdom; whose empire had extended from the Nile to the Indus, before Greece and Rome had even a name ! And can Egypt's place in history be determined and described? Bunsen has attempted it. He has placed himself on her ancient monuments, and surveyed the immense periods of her historic existence, and, as he thinks, ascertained her “place” in the history of man.

To his own great industry and learning he has joined 'that of all the learned Egyptologers from Champollion to Lepsius ; in short, what human learning and industry could do to fix Egypt's place in history, it would seem has been done by Bunsen in these five volumes.

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It is with his system that of chronology — that we are now concerned. We shall give that system, and the principal facts and reasons on which it rests, as near as we can, in the author's own words. In general, we think these facts and reasons need only to be stated in order to be discarded as insufficient for the basis of such superstructure:


“ FIRST AGE OF THE WORLD. “Ancient Antediluvian History - from the Creation to the Flood; Primitive Formation of Language; and the Beginning of the Formation of Mythology.

“The Historical Primitive World (I., II., III.). (1-10,000 Year of Man; 20,000-10,000 B. C.).

“FIRST PERIOD (I.). — Formation and Deposit of Sinism (20,000-15,000 B. C.).

“ Primitive language, spoken with rising or falling cadence elucidated by gesture — accompanied by pure pictorial writing; every syllable a word, every word a full substantive, one representable by a picture.

“Deposit of this language in Northern China (Shensi), in the country of the source of the Houngho-Sinism. The earliest polarization of religious consciousness : Kosmos or Universe, and the Soul of Personality. Objective worship, the firmament; subjective worship, the soul of parents, or the manifestation of divine in the family.

“ SECOND PERIOD OF THE WORLD (II.). - Formation and Deposit of Primitive Turanism: The eastern polarization of Sinism (15,000-14,000 B. C.).

“Pure agglutinative language: formation of polysyllabic words by means of unity of accent (word accent).

“ Origin of particles, words no longer substantive and full, but

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