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B. C. the two seasons must have been in equilibrio in our hemi. sphere. In the year 9252 B. C. the cold season had attained its maximum. The opposite or most favorable division of heat and cold took place, therefore, in the year 19,752 B. C.

"This epoch explains very simply the reason why the north • pole is surrounded with perpetual ice only from about the seven

tieth degree, when at the south pole it is found at the sixty-fifth. In other words, the history of progressive human civilization, with which we are acquainted, is comprised within one hemisphere, and under climacteric accidents the most favorable to advancement.

" Now, as we must suppose that the date of the commencement of our race was the most favorable both for its origin and continuance, and as, on the other hand, the catastrophe which we call the flood would have arrived at the next unfavorable period for our hemisphere, that epoch, the central point of which is the year 9250 B. C., would seem the most probable one for the change in climatic relations. This assumption is confirmed by the most ancient monuments and traditions.* The chronology of Egypt shows still more clearly than traditions preserved in the Rabbinical Book of the Origines, that the flood of Noah could not have taken place later than about 10,000 B. C., and could not have taken place much earlier.

“ The only question, therefore, is, whether the history of the human race, and consequently the origines of the primitive world, date from the above-mentioned favorable epoch, about 20,000 B. C., or whether we are justified in going back to the last epoch but one, or about 40,000 B. C.” (Vol. iv. 52-54.)

The following extracts show an important part of the argument adopted to maintain these assumptions:

* What monuments and traditions? As far as we know, even our author has failed to specify them; unless such a specification is intended by his brief allusions to the mythological periods of some of the ancient nations.

" The formative words in the Egyptian mark the transition from Sinism to Khamism — from the particle language to the language of parts of speech. ... The earliest Turanism to the east of Khamism marks the first stage of organic language, i. e., of language with the parts of speech. The second is Khamism, i. e., the stage of language we meet with in Egypt.” (Vol.. iv. p. 558.)

“The shortest line from inorganic language to organic is that of Sinism through primitive Turanism to primitive Semism, the deposit of which in the valley of the Nile we have in Egyptian. The last emigration was probably that of the Aryans to the country of the five rivers. The oldest hymns in the country of the Punjaub go back to 3000 B. C. This community of language must then, at all events, be supposed to have existed much earlier than 3000 B. C. They had, consequently, at that time long got over the stage of underived Iranism and Semism. Between 30,000 and 4000 B. C., the vast step in Asiatic advancement from Khamism to Semism, and from Semism to Iranism, was made. If the step from Latin to Italian be taken as a unit, this previous step must be reckoned at least at ten or at twenty.” (Vol. iv. p. 562.)

“From all this it appears that the period of one great revolution of the earth's axis (twenty-one thousand years) is a very probable time for the development of human language in the shortest line; and that the double of this, which we should be obliged to suppose, would be a highly improbable one.” (Vol. iv. p. 563.)

“It has been shown at the commencement of this volume, that we may hope by a combination of researches and observations to establish that mankind has only terminated one astronomical period, and commenced the second in the year. 1240 of our era; and there are reasons for placing the intermediate catastrophe in the most unfavorable part of that period, or about 10,000 B. C. As to subdivisions, if too large a space has been assumed in this one, there is room enough for it in the other. We see no reason

for going back to a preceding epoch of twenty-one thousand years; but less than one period is impossible, were it only because of the stubborn fact of the strata of languages. To what point, then, is Egypt brought back by this calculation? To the middle, at least, or the ninth millennium of man, as the period of the immigration of the western branch of our race into the valley of the Nile. But this is the very close of the primitive world in the strict sense, that is to say, of the history of our race before the great convulsion of that part of Central Asia to which we turn as the cradle of mankind. This convulsion, which we know as the flood of Noah, in all probability coincides with that epoch of the northern hemisphere when the temperature was lowest, or from 9000 to 10,000 B. C., just as the origin of our race coincides with that period of it when the temperature was highest, which was ten thousand five hundred years earlier.

"If this principle be correct, the Egyptians can have known nothing of the flood, allusions to which we find everywhere among the Iranians and Semites; and in truth no such tradition is current among them, any more than it was among the old Turanians and Chinese." (Vol. iv. p. 564.)

In regard to the above hypothesis of the great antiquity of man on the earth, and the arguments in support of it, we think little needs to be said by way of confutation. We must, however, briefly state the reasons why we do not receive the hypothesis, and think the arguments inconclusive. We might use the words "absurd,” “irrational,” and other stronger disparaging epithets, in relation to the author's reasoning, and think ourselves justified in their use. But the use of such terms generally weakens an argument. For what one calls absurd, another regards merely as inconclusive, a third, fair reasoning, and a fourth, sound argument. We, therefore, will endeavor to

meet the argument of our author in a sober, matter-of-fact style of reasoning.

And first as to his astronomical argument. The substance of the argument is this : On account of “the deviation of the earth's axis,” the northern and southern hemispheres enjoy unequal degrees of heat and cold. When this difference is at the extreme, the seasons of “spring and summer are eight days longer than autumn and winter.” But “ the history of progressive human civilization with which we are acquainted is comprised within one hemisphere, and under climacteric accidents the most favorable to advancement.” These “ favorable climacteric accidents” are the seasons of spring and summer being longer than autumn and winter. Therefore, as man has mostly lived in the northern hemisphere, his creation must have taken place when the heat was greatest in this hemisphere, i. e., about 20,000 B. C., and the flood must have taken place about 10,000 B. C., when the cold was at its maximum.

In regard to this argument, we remark: First, we neither admit the premises nor the conclusion. Having passed some fifteen years in the southern part of that belt which has been most densely peopled by the race, we have a little experience that bears directly on the point. We thought and felt decidedly, that the cool season was more favorable to physical and mental vigor, to physical and mental development, than the hot season. And, if we mistake not, such were decidedly the thoughts and feelings of all in that land who had much to do in the various spheres of bodily and mental activity. So that if

for going back to a preceding epoch of twenty-one thousand years; but less than one period is impossible, were it only because of the stubborn fact of the strata of languages. To what point, then, is Egypt brought back by this calculation? To the middle, at least, or the ninth millennium of man, as the period of the immigration of the western branch of our race into the valley of the Nile. But this is the very close of the primitive world in the strict sense, that is to say, of the history of our race before the great convulsion of that part of Central Asia to which we turn as the cradle of mankind. This convulsion, which we know as the flood of Noah, in all probability coincides with that epoch of the northern hemisphere when the temperature was lowest, or from 9000 to 10,000 B. C., just as the origin of our race coincides with that period of it when the temperature was highest, which was ten thousand five hundred years earlier.

“If this principle be correct, the Egyptians can have known nothing of the flood, allusions to which we find everywhere among the Iranians and Semites; and in truth no such tradition is current among them, any more than it was among the old Turanians and Chinese." (Vol. iv. p. 564.)

In regard to the above hypothesis of the great antiquity of man on the earth, and the arguments in support of it, we think little needs to be said by way of confutation. We must, however, briefly state the reasons why we do not receive the hypothesis, and think the arguments inconclusive. We might use the words “ absurd,” “ irrational,” and other stronger disparaging epithets, in relation to the author's reasoning, and think ourselves justified in their use. But the use of such terms generally weakens an argument. For what one calls absurd, another regards merely as inconclusive, a third, fair reasoning, and a fourth, sound argument. We, therefore, will endeavor to

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