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“I SHALL begin with the writings of the Egyptians; not indeed of those that have written in the Egyptian language, which it is impossible for me to do. But Manetho was a man who was by birth an Egyptian; yet had he made himself master of the Greek learning, as is very evident, for he wrote the history of his own country in the Greek tongue, by translating it, as he saith himself, out of their sacred records; he also finds great fault with Herodotus for his ignorance and false relation of Egyptian affairs. Now, this Manetho, in the second book of his Egyptian history, writes concerning us in the following manner. I will set down his very words, as if I were to bring the man himself into a court for a witness.
" There was a king of ours, whose name was Timaus. Under him it came to pass, I know not how, that God was averse to us; and there came, after a surprising manner, men of ignoble birth out of the eastern parts, and had boldness enough to make an expedition into our country, and with ease subdued it by force, yet without our hazarding a battle with them. So when they had gotten those that governed us under their power, they afterwards burnt down our cities, and demolished the temples of the gods, and used all the inhabitants after a most barbarous manner; nay, some they slew, and led their children and their wives into slavery. At length they made one of themselves king, whose name was Salatis ; he also lived at Memphis, and made both the upper and lower regions pay tribute, and left garrisons in places that were the most proper for them. ... When this man had reigned thirteen years, after him reigned another, whose name was Beon, for forty-four years; after hinn reigned another, called Apachnas, thirty-six years and seven months;
after him Apopkis reigned sixty-one years, and then Fanias fifty years and one month; after all these reigned Assis forty-nine years and two months. And these six were the first rulers among them, who were all along making war with the Egyptians, and were very desirous, gradually, to destroy them to the very roots. This whole nation was styled Hycsos, that.is, Shepherdkings; for the first syllable, Hyc, according to the sacred dialect, denotes a king, as is Sos a shepherd — but this according to the ordinary dialect; and of these is compounded Hycsos. But some say that these people were Arabians.' Now, in another copy it is said that this word does not denote kings, but, on the contrary, denotes captive shepherds, and this on account of the particle Hyc; for that Hyc, with the aspiration in the Egyptian tongue again, denotes shepherds, and that expressly also; and this, to me, seems the more probable opinion, and more agreeable to ancient history. (But Manetho goes on :) “These people, whom we have before named kings, and called shepherds also, and their descendants,' as he says, “kept possession of Egypt five hundred and eleven years. After these he says, "That the kings of Thebais, and of other parts of Egypt, made an insurrection against the Shepherds, and that a terrible and long war was made between them.' He says further : “That under a king, whose name was Alisphragmuthosis, the Shepherds were subdued by him, and were indeed driven out of other parts of Egypt, but were shut up in a place that contained ten thousand acres; this place was named Avaris.' Manetho says, “That the Shepherds built a wall round all this place, which was a large and strong wall, and this in order to keep all their possessions and their prey within a place of strength, but that Thummosis, the son of Alisphrag. muthosis, made an attempt to take them by force and by siege, with four hundred and eighty thousand men to lie round about. them; but that, upon his despair of taking the place by that siege, they came to a composition with them, that they should leave Egypt and go, without any harm to be done to them, whithersoever they would; and that after this composition was
made, they went away, with their whole families and effects, not sewer in number than two hundred and forty thousand, and took their journey from Egypt through the wilderness for Syria; but that as they were in fear of the Assyrians, who had then the dominion over Asia, they built a city in that country which is now called Judea, and that large enough to contain this great number of men, and called it Jerusalem.' Now Manetho, in another book of his, says, “That this nation thus called Shepherds were also called captives in their sacred books.' And this account of his is the truth; for feeding of sheep was the employment of our forefathers in the most ancient ages; and as they led such a wandering life in feeding sheep, they were called shepherds. Nor was it without reason that they were called captives by the Egyptians, since one of our ancestors, Joseph, told the king of Egypt that he was a captive, and afterward sent for his brethren into Egypt, by the king's permission; but as for these matters, I shall make a more exact inquiry about them elsewhere.
"But now I shall produce the Egyptians as witness to the antiquity of our nation. I shall therefore here bring in Manetho again, and what he writes as to the order of the times in this casc; and thus he speaks: “When this people, or Shepherds, were gone out of Egypt to Jerusalem, Tethmosis, the king of Egypt who drove them out, reigned afterward twenty-five years and four months, and then' died; after him his son, Chebron, took the kingdom for thirteen years; after whom came Amenophis, for twenty years and seven months; then came his sister, Amosses, for twenty-one years and nine inonths; after her came Mephires, for twelve years and nine months; after her was Mephraiuthosis, for twenty-five years and ten months; after him was Tethniosis, for nine years and eight months; after him came Aminophis, for thirty years and ten months; after him came Orus, for thirty-six years and five months; then came his daughter, Acencheres, for twelve years and one month; then was her brother, Rathotis, for nine years; then was Acencheres, for twelve years and five months; then came another Acencherés, for twelve years and three months; after him Armais, for four years and one month; after him was Ramesses, for one year and four months; after him came Armesses Miammoun, for sixty years and two months; after him Amenophis, for nineteen years and six months; after him came Sethosis, and Ramesses, who had an army of horse and a naval force. This king appointed his brother Armais to be his deputy over Egypt.' In another copy it stood thus : ' After him came Sethosis and Ramesses, two brethren, the former of whom had a naval force, and in a hostile manner destroyed those that met him upon the sea; but as he slew Ramesses in no long time afterward, so he appointed another of his brethren to be his deputy over Egypt. He also gave him all the authority of a king, but with these only injunctions, that he should not wear the diadem, nor be injurious to the queen, the mother of his children, and that he should not meddle with the other concubines of the king; while he made an expedition against Cyprus and Phænicia, and beside against the Assyrians and the Medes. He then subdued them all, some by his arms, some without fighting, and some by the terror of his great army; and being puffed up by the great success he had had, he still went on the more boldly, and overthrew the cities and countries that lay in the eastern parts; but after some considerable time, Armais, who was left in Egypt, did all these very things, by the way of opposition, which his brother had forbidden him to do, without fear; for he used violence to the queen, and continued to make use of the rest of the concubines, without sparing any of them; nay, at the persuasion of his friends he put on the diadem, and set up to oppose his brother; but then he who was set over the priests of Egypt wrote letters to Sethosis, and informed him of all that had happened, and how his brother had set up to oppose him; he therefore returned back to Pelusim immediately, and recovered his kingdoms again. The country also was called from his name Egypt; for Manetho says that Sethosis himself was called Egyptus, as was his brother Armais called Danaus.'”.
*The language of the last paragraph gives rise to a doubt as to where the quotation from Manetho should close. We have placed the quotation marks as we find them in the translation of Whiston. .
For the sake of convenience in comparing this list of Josephus with those of Africanus and Eusebius for the same period in history, we arrange the names in a concise tabular form:
OF SHEPHERD KINGS.
KINGS OF THEBAIS, OR THOSE AFTER THE EX.
PULSION OF THE SHEPHERDS.
1. Tethmosis, . . . .