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The greatest physical difference between any two races is, of course, that which exists between the blacks and the whites, or rather between the Negro and the Caucasian. If this be not sufficient to constitute difference of species, it will be conceded that such difference does not exist. Upon this point the following statements are worthy to be considered :

“The ablest living anatomist of Germany - Professor Tiedemann — has lately directed his researches with singular felicity to the vindication of the uncivilized man's capacity for improvement. In the works mentioned at the head of this article, and in the translation read at the Royal Society of London, of which the professor is a foreign member, that important question seems to be set at rest forever. The results of a most exact analysis of cases are thus stated by him :

6661. The brain of the negro is, upon the whole, quite as large as that of the European and other human races. The weight of the brain, its dimensions, and the capacity of the cavum cranii, prove this fact. Many anatomists have also incorrectly asserted that Europeans have a larger brain than negroes.

6662. The nerves of the negro, relatively to the size of the brain, are not thicker than those of Europeans, as Soemmerring and his followers have said.

"63. The outward form of the spinal cord, the medulla oblongata, the cerebellum, and cerebrum of the negro show no important difference from those of the European.

"64. Nor does the inward structure — the order of the cortical and medullary substance — nor the inward organization of the negro brain show any difference from those of the European.

“• 5. The negro brain does not resemble that of the orangoutang more than the European brain, except in the more sym-* metrical distribution of the gyri and sula. It is not even certain that this is always the case. We can not, therefore, coincide with the opinion of many naturalists, who say that the negro has more resemblance to apes than Europeans in reference to the brain and nervous system.'”

And after a minute survey of proofs respecting the intellectual faculties of the negro, Professor Tiedemann concludes in the following words: —

“ The principal result of my researches on the brain of the negro is, that neither anatomy nor physiology can justify our placing them beneath Europeans in a moral or intellectual point of view.” *

Another distinguished ethnologist, in defining a negro, says, –

“ The negroes are referable to an extreme rather than a normal type; and so far are they from being co-extensive with the Africans, that it is almost exclusively along the valleys of rivers that they are to be found. There are none in the extratropical parts of Northern, none in the corresponding parts of Southern Africa, and but few on the table-lands of even the two sides of the equator. Their areas, indeed, are scanty and small. One lies on the Upper Nile, one on the Lower Gambia and Senegal, one on the Lower Niger, and the last along the western coast, where the smaller rivers that originate in the Kong Mountains form hot and moist alluvial tracts.”

Again: “If the word negro mean the combination of woolly hair with a jetty black skin, depressed nose, thick lips, narrow forehead, acute facial angle, and prominent jaw, it applies to Africans as

* For. Quarterly Review, Oct., 1839.

widely different from each other as the Laplander is from the Samoeid and Eskimo, or the Englishman from the Finlander. It applies to the inhabitants of certain portions of different riversystems, inde pendent of relationship, and vice versa. The negroes of Kordofan are nearer in descent to the Copts and Arabs than are the lighter-colored and civilized Fulahs. They are also nearer to the same than they are to the blacks of Senegambia. If this be the case, the term has no place in ethnology, except so far as its extensive use makes it hard to abandon. Its real application is to anthropology, wherein it means the effects of certain influences upon certain intertropical Africans, irrespective of descent, but not irrespective of physical condition. As truly as a short stature and light skin coincide with the occupancy of mountain ranges, the negro physiognomy coincides with that of the alluvia of rivers." *

Dr. Livingstone, the great African traveler, is a writer whose opinions few will dare to dispute. He says, –

“All the inhabitants of this region, as well as those of Londa, may be called true negroes, if the limitations formerly made be borne in mind. The dark color, thick lips, heads elongated backwards and upwards, and covered with wool, flat noses, with other negro peculiarities, are general; but while these characteristics place them in the true negro family, the reader would imbibe a wrong idea if he supposed that all these features combined are often met with in one individual. All have a certain thickness and prominence of lip, but many are met with in every village in whom thickness and prominence are not more marked than in Europeans. All are dark, but the color is shaded off in different individuals from deep black to light yellow. As we go westward, we observe the light color predominating over the dark; and then again, when we come within the influence of damp from the sea air, we find the shade deepen into the general blackness of the coast population. The shape of the head, with its woolly crop, though general, is not universal. The tribes on

* Latham, Man and his Migrations, p. 147.

the eastern side of the continent, as the Caffres, have heads finely developed, and strongly European. Instances of this kind are frequently seen, and after I became so familiar with the dark color as to forget it in viewing the countenance, I was struck by the strong resemblance some nations bore to certain of our own notabilities. The Bushmen and Hottentots are exceptions to these remarks, for both the shape of their heads and growth of wool are peculiar - the latter, for instance, springs from the scalp in tufts, with bare spaces between, and, when the crop is short, resembles a number of black pepper-corns stuck on the skin, and very unlike the thick, frizzly masses which cover the heads of the Balonda and Maravi. With every disposition to pay due deference to the opinions of those who have made ethnology their special study, I have felt myself unable to believe that the exaggerated features usually put forth as those of the typical negro characterize the majority of any nation of South Central Africa. The monuments of the ancient Egyptians seem to me to embody the ideal of the inhabitants of Londa better than the figures of any work of Ethnology I have met with." — Livingstone's Researches in South Africa. London ed., 1857, ch. xix. p. 378.

The following facts and opinions respecting the negro race are from the work of another recent African traveler.*

Having given a physical description of the negro which would satisfy any negro-hater, the writer proceeds as follows:

“ Thus it has been proved by measurements, by microscopes, by analysis, that the typical negro is something between a child,

* “ Savage AFRICA: Being the Narrative of a Tour in Equatorial, South-western, and North-western Africa. . . . By Winwood Reade, Fellow of the Geographical and Anthropological Societies of London, and Corresponding Member of the Geographical Society of Paris. Second edition, London.

a dotard, and a beast. I can not struggle against these sacred facts of science; I can not venture to dispute the degradation of the negro. But I contend that it is only degradation; that it is the result of disease; that it is not characteristic of the African continent; and that it is confined to a small geographical area. ... But first I will remove the great stumbling-block of African ethnology. By defining the geography of the negro, I shall pave the way for the elucidation of that mystery which has perplexed the philosophers of all ages — the negro's place in nature. ·

“ Those who deny that the negro type has been produced by natural causes, have alleged that there are two distinct races in Africa, — the red and the black, and that they inhabit the same localities. The reader will bear in mind that a series of mountain terraces runs along the whole length of Western Africa, and that between them and the sea are low and malarious swamps. These mountains are inhabited by the true Africana red-skinned race. Nations of these, descending into the swamps, have become degraded in body and mind, and their type completely changed.

"The negro forms an exceptional race in Africa. He inhabits that immense tract of marshy land which lies between the mountains and the sea, from Senegal to Benguela, and the lowlands. of the eastern side in the same manner. He is found in the parts about Lake Tchad, in Sennaar, along the marshy banks of rivers, and in several isolated spots besides. But he is not found in the vast tracts which are occupied by the Berbers on the north, and the Bitshuanas of the south. He is not found in the highlands of Ethiopia, nor in those of Soudan.

"In Africa there are three grand races, as there may be said to be three grand geological divisions.

“The Libyan stock inhabit the primitive and volcanic tracts. They have a tawny complexion, Caucasian features, and long black hair.

“On the sand-stones will be found an intermediate type.

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