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They are darker than their parents; they have short and very curly hair; their lips are thick, and their nostrils wide at the base.
* And, finally, in the alluvia, one will find the negroes with a black skin, woolly hair, and prognathous development.
"I do not mean to assert that light-colored tribes are never found in the alluvia, and that true negroes can never be met with in the dry plateaus. There is in Africa a continual movement towards the west. It is, therefore, common enough to see Fulas and Mandingos inhabiting the lowlands of Senegambia; and the light-colored Fans are beginning to occupy the banks of the Gaboon. In the same manner, a tribe of negroes migrating across the continent from the east coast might be met with in a sandy desert of Central Africa.
“My assertion that the negro is as exceptional a race in Africa as the livid inhabitants of the Fens in England, or of the Pontine marshes in Italy, and that he inhabits, comparatively speaking, a small geographical area, will excite great surprise. There is a general delusion respecting the negro which is not difficult to explain. The whole western coast, and a great portion of the eastern coast, are inhabited by negroes. It is natural that travelers and coast residents should accept them as types of the races of the continent. The slaves that have been imported into the New World were almost exclusively brought from these regions; and I have always observed that slaves, even among negroes, present a lower type than that of the surrounding population. These also have been examined, and written upon by naturalists as true samples of the African.” — pp. 509, 513.
In regard to the cause of color in man, a distinguished French savant * writes as follows:—
. “When we seek for the cause of coloration in the human skin, an anatomical analysis presents particulars to which sufficient
* De l'Unité des Races Humaines. Par M. Ladevi Roche, Professeur Honoraire de Philosophie à la Faculté de Lettres de Bordeaux.
attention has not been given. In proceeding from the outside, we at first meet with that thin, light pellicle, transparent and colorless tissue, called the epidermis ; and immediately below, the microscope reveals the colored matter called the pigmentary body (from the Latin pigmentum, painting), formed of a multitude of granules, and always presenting a yellow, red, or black tint, which is reflected by the transparency of the epidermis. They (the polygenists) have gone further: they have wished tu descend even to the true skin of man, to the dermis, in which are the roots of the hair, ... in the hope of finding there the efficient cause of coloration in the pigmentary matter. But, oh, surprise! The dermis, the true skin of man, which they thought to find black, yellow, red, or copper-colored, and, by these different shades, to justify the distinction and plurality of races, — the dermis, I say, turned and returned in every way, examined by the lens and the microscope, in the white, in the black, in the red, and in the yellow, constantly offers itself to the astonished eye with a uniform color of faded white, as soon as it is disengaged from the blood that covers it; and we have been forced to recognize — so evident was the fact — that the true skin of man - the two tissues which cover it being removed was of the same complexion (d'une teinte unicolorée) in all men, and that, in this relation, no doubt can be entertained respecting the unity of the human races. Thus the variety of coloration depends solely on the presence of the pigmentary body. This body is a cellular network, of which each cell contains, under the form of granules, the coloring matter. It is very apparent in individuals who are black, red, olive, or tawny; it is less, and sometimes not at all, in those that are white; so that the first observers declared that in the white man there was no trace of it that which creates a difference between the white race and the other three. And already, taking advantage of this peculiarity, the. polygenists cry with an air of triumph (G. Pouchet, p. 74), “Behold an appendage (appareil) which is wanting in the white man, which the negro possesses, and which he alone possesses! Be.
hold a fundamental difference in the name of which we are able to proclaim the non-community of origin in the races!'
" Not so fast (ne vous pressez pas tant), Messieurs; you have nothing to proclaim. New researches, made with more care, by M. Flourens in France, and by M. Simon at Berlin, have discovered the pigmentary appendage even in the white. It is its presence which gives to the areole mamelon its brown color, and it is its appearance which, under the influence of the sun's rays, causes to appear blotches of red so frequent in men of a blond color. It has been found again by M. Flourens throughout the entire skin of a French soldier, who died in Algeria; which would lead one to think that men carry in them the germ of this appendage, and that different outward influences, among which it is necessary to reckon climate, provoke its development (Godron, vol. ii. p. 144.) ... In the face of these facts, will the polygenists attempt to affirm that between the white and the black there is an impassable gulf?
“The pigmentum, or the coloring matter, which covers the surface of the dermis, and transmits its color to the epidermis, does not exist in the new-born infant, and commences to exist only some time after birth; it is asked, What is the cause of this? To this question several answers have been given. Some have said the formative cause is climate; others, that it is alimentary regime; others, that it is the hygrometric state of the air; others, that it is the excess of carbon, which the blood contains in very warm countries. This diversity of opinions in regard to the true formative agent of the pigmentary substance, proves that science is not yet settled on this point. But let us mark well that the indecision of science on this point does not weaken the certainty, (1.) of the existence of the pigmentary body; (2.) of the uniformity of color in the dermis ;. (3.) of the infinite variety of colors in each race; (4.) of the generation of the white by the black and the black by the white; and as all these facts concur to demonstrate the unity of the human races, we see that this unity is altogether independent of the different explications proposed, and not yet recognized as true, of the formation of the coloring matter.”
Again: “ They have desired to make the hair of the negro a characteristic of the race, saying that they alone have crisped or woolly hair. But they have forgotten to tell us that negroes offer in this, as in all other respects, the greatest variety. There are some with straight, smooth hair, others who have it curled, and others still who have long hair descending to the shoulders. In all cases, where the hair is crispy, it is never woolly. The hair, it is true, presents the appearance of wool, because it combines. with it a kind of thick oil, soft to the touch; but its anatomical conformation is different. The filaments of a fleece present small asperities, which permit them to felt, that is to say, to be entangled in such a manner as to form a tissue. Their free ends are thicker than the other* -a property that is never met with in the hair of the negro, from which neither cloth, nor anything resembling woolen stuff, can be made. L. Remusat, Revue de Deux Mondes, May, 1854.”
K. Page 202. VARIATIONS IN SPECIES AMONG DOMESTIC
And here I need only allude to a few prominent facts.
1. SWINE. Naturalists are generally agreed that all varieties of swine are descended from the wild boar; f and yet what'a
* Leur bord libre est plus épais que leur autre extrémité. ,
" The hog descends from the common boar, now found wild over the whole temperate zone in the Old World.” (Agassiz, in
great variety of races are now known to exist! When transported into different climates, e. g., into South America, the change is sometimes very great. “Some have acquired erect ears, vaulted foreheads, and heads much larger than were found in the original breed. With some the color becomes black, and with others the skin acquires a thick fur, beneath which is a species of wool. Some, again, are red; others have solid hoofs. One breed is found, in Quebaya, with toes half a span long, white ears, pendent belly, and long tusks, crooked like the horns of oxen.”
There is a variety of swine in Hungary with solid hoofs, and a breed with the same peculiar characteristics has appeared in the Red River country, in the United States. The difference in the form of the crania of the varieties of swine - especially of the wild and the tameis greater than is found among the most dissimilar of the human races, e. g., the Negro and the Caucasian.
2. SHEEP. Very marked varieties have sprung up among sheep. And here we need not feel embarrassed in our argument by the fact that it has been, and still is, disputed what was the origin of the sheep ;* whether the different varieties sprang from one or a number of primitive distinct species. All we have to do is to consider a few marked cases of a
a “ Sketch of Natural World, and their Relation to the different Types of Men,” published “ Types of Mankind,” p. Ixvii.
* In regard to the single or plural origin of the species of our domestic animals in general, the following opinion of Quatrefages is of great weight: “These examples will suffice to show