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change of type in the same stock when subjected to different climatic influences. It is well known that sheep were not found on the western continent till after its discovery in the latter part of the 15th century; hence the cases of . marked change in the same stock are perfectly authentic.
“Among those introduced into South America, a hairy breed has sprung up. A breed has been found with monstrous tails; others are found with projecting iips and pendent ears.” *
“ Several accounts have been published of the change which sheep from Europe undergo in the West Indies. Dr. Nicholson, of Antigua, informs me that, after the third generation, the wool disappears from the whole body, except over the loins; and the animals then appear like a goat with a dirty door-mat on its back. A similar change is said to take place on the west coast of Africa." +
" In some few instances new breeds have suddenly originated. Thus, in 1791, a ram lamb was born in Massachusetts having short crooked legs, and a long back, like a turn-spit dog. From this one lamb the otter or ancon semi-monstrous breed was raised. As these sheep could not leap over fences, it was thought they would be valuable; but they have been supplanted by merinos, and thus exterminated.” † They would breed truly, always
that the profound study of our domestic races always leads more and more to attach to the same species all those which bear the same name, however different they may be.” – Quatrefages, Unité de l'Espèce Humaine, p. 107.
* Brace, Races of the Old World, p. 455, referring to De Salles.
† Darwin, Variations of Animals and Plants, vol. i. p. 124, who refers to his numerous authorities for these and other facts.
I Ibid, p. 126. The same fact is noticed by Cabell (p. 37), Quatrefages and other writers. It is an undoubted case of a new breed or variety springing up from a well-known stock, and hence, in its analogical bearings, is of great importance. .
producing ancon offspring. “When crossed with other breeds, the offspring, with rare exceptions, instead of being intermediate, perfectly resembled either parent.”
“A more interesting case has been recorded in the report of the juries of the great exhibition (1851), namely, the production of a merino ram lamb in 1828, which was remarkable for its long, smooth, straight, and silky wool.” *
“The sheep of Yemen introduced into Egypt have acquired a straight, rude hair, with a fine down at its roots. Some of the merino sheep are covered with wool, and others with hair, quite differing in structure; and sometimes the same individual, under new circumstances, shows the changes from wool to hair.”+
Darwin remarks, –
“That many breeds of cattle have originated through varia. tion, independently of descent from distinct species, we may infer from what we see in South America, where the genus Bos was not endemic, and where the cattle, which now exist in such vast numbers, are the descendants of a few imported from Spain and Portugal. In Colombia, Roulin describes two peculiar breeds, namely, pelones, with extremely thin and fine hair, and calongos, absolutely naked. . . . In Paraguay, Azara describes a breed which certainly originated in South America, called chivos, because they have straight, vertical horns, conical, and very large at the base.' He likewise describes a dwarf race in Corrientes, with short horns; and others, with reversed hair, have also originated in Paraguay.”
Darwin then mentions a “ monstrous breed, called niatas, or natas,” two small herds of which he saw on the banks of the Plata, “ This breed,” he says, " bears the same
* Darwin, Variations, etc., vol. i. p. i20.
Brace, Races of the Old World, p. 455.
relation to other breeds as bull or pug dogs do to other dogs, or as improved pigs, according to Nathusius, do to other pigs. Rütimeyer believes that these cattle belong to the primogenius type. The forehead is very short and broad, with the nasal end of the skull, together with the whole plane of the upper molar teeth, curved upward. The lower jaw projects beyond the upper, and has a corresponding upward curvature. ... The upper lip is widely open, the eyes project outward, and the horns are large. In walking, the head is carried low, and the neck is short. The hind legs appear to be larger, compared with the front legs, than is usual. The exposed incisor teeth, the short head and upturned nostrils, give these cattle the most ludicrous, self-confident air of defiance.” *
Dr. Bachman,t having quoted Darwin's account of this variety, makes the following pertinent remarks:
“We have here another example in evidence of the fact that, without the slightest intermixture of foreign varieties, new breeds of cattle spring up in America. They made their first appearance about eighty years ago, when one was occasionally brought to Buenos Ayres. Now they have become the only race in an immense region of country where they are nearly wild. What causes have operated to produce this variety? There are no wild animals, not even the buffalo, in that country, from which any admixture could by any possibility have been derived. Were we not positive of their origin, they would unquestionably be regarded as a new species.”
These facts, related by naturalists, – many more similar ones might be cited, — are sufficient for our purpose.
* Darwin, Variations of Animals and Plants, i. p. 113. † Unity of the Human Race, p. 305-6.
5 hout resoring extreme cases for illustrations, it
wi de prie gimste to refer to the common . vadese cake bolia any country, -e.g., England,
e - Dansbe - Herefords the - Highland cattle,” De-1ez91-be- Short Horns the “ Long Horns," etinet; bor we fiai varieties arising in the same stock * as saritei si appareats distinct as are found in the bcaa ruce. There are cattle without homs, with one bors with short borns, with long hornst with straight boos, se crooked horns with pendent hors and vertica. 500s and of all possible colors; with long legs, and
legs, with crania wide and short, and long and narrow:-exbibang among themselves a far greater difference than is seen among the crania of the most dissimilar of the human races.
4 HORSES. The following is from Darwin:** Whether the whole amount of difference between the various breeds be due to variation, is doubtful. From the fertility of the most distinct breeds when crossed, naturalists have generally looked at all breeds as having descended from a single species. Few will agree with Colonel H. Smith, who believes that they have descended from no less than five primitive and differently colored stocks. But as sereral species and varieties of the horse existed during the later tertiary periods, and, as Ratimeyer
• There are enumerated “19 British breeds * of cattle, and * in the most recent work on cattle, engravings are given of 55 European breeds. * (Moll and Garot, “ La Connaissance Gen. du Bæuf,Paris, 1860; Darwin, Variations, etc., vol. i. p. 103.)
* Darwin mentions a specimen S feet 81 inches from tip to tip, and 13 feet 5 inches as measured on the curve. – Variations, etc., vol. i. p. 110
found differences in the size and form of the skull in the earliest known domesticated horses, we ought not to feel sure that all our breeds have descended from a single species.” *
But, admitting the opinion of Colonel Hamilton Smith as correct, – it is only an opinion, — the facts furnished by Darwin himself, in regard to modifications in the same breed from change of climate and other influences, prove that the varieties in mankind may be accounted for without resort to the supposition of a plural origin.
“There can be no doubt,” says Darwin, “ that horses become greatly reduced in size, and altered in appearance, by living on mountains and islands. ... There were, or still are, on some of the islands on the coast of Virginia, ponies like those of the Shetland Islands, which are believed to have originated through exposure to unfavorable conditions. The Puno ponies, which inhabit the lofty regions of the Cordilleras, are, as I hear from Mr. D. Forbes, strange little creatures, very unlike their Spanish progenitors.” +
“The horses, according to M. Roulin, transported to South America, have formed a race with fur instead of hair, and have changed to an almost uniform bay color.” I
5. Dogs. The varieties found among dogs are probably greater and more marked than are known to exist in any other species of animals. There is the St. Bernard dog of the Alps and Mont Blanc, the Newfoundland dog, the bull dog, the “ twelve kinds of greyhounds,” ş and all the way down through the spaniels, terriers, turnspits, pugs, etc.,
* Variations, etc., vol. i. p. 68.
Brace, p. 457.