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are close to the soil will be drawn upon. Olympus towers afar with its divinities. Nearer to the earth, for example, is the mountain of San Francisco in Arizona, which the Navahos say was “bound with a sunbeam, decked with haliotis shell, clouds, he-rain, yellow maize, and animals, nested with eggs of the yellow warbler, spread with yellow cloud and made the home of White-Corn Boy and Yellow-Corn Girl.” However high their spirit soars, men's feet are on the ground. If it is the limitation of their nature it is the liberation of their art that their interest is more in quests of the Terrestrial Paradise than in myths of things unearthly.

It was the first belief of man that with a thought he could change the outer world. What was it, indeed, but the projection of his own soul-the demons that were his evil thoughts, "the savage and voluptuous beasts that were the emblems of his folly,” the ideal lands that were the dawn and afterglow of his own days? The beginning of art was magic, alike in the chants of rainmakers, the cave paintings of the Dordogne, and the sculptures of Egypt; and magic is its end. Still may the artist soul of man fashion its own realities.

While he builds the pleasant marvels of his yesterdays into habitations of fancy, he will rear other structures of the like insubstantial stuff and deem them the abiding places of reality. The shows of nature are a pageant through which man moves in a dream of his own making. The piling and passing of the clouds, the fog's oblivion, the sunset, the night and the stars, work their spells about him, masking, concealing, revealing. With the harmless revel of fireflies in the dew and dusk, fairy locks unbolt for him. He cannot look upon life save as a drama or an allegory, with the earth as the stage and the sky for its hangings. By the law of his being he must be maker of myths.

Only a divine animal could question what was behind the hills, win the vision of unconjectured oceans, hear the note of eternity in the sound of running water, and, flashing into a brief ecstasy, sink back again with the cry of Eheu Fugaces. The brute-gods of his myths, are they not man himself with his animal routine and his divine moments? When he crosses the barrier of dreams, when he sits at the gates of memory, when contemplation holds him motionless "like a flame in a windless spot,” in his Dionysian intoxications, in the very dances wherein he merges the god and the brute, he creates worlds that ensphere his every mood. The Iranian who calls the abode of the blest the House of Song, and the Mongol whose official scrolls speak of the continents as the Golden Surface have made a new heaven and a new earth.

It is not given man to envisage reality. His is the greater gift to brood over Chaos and shape it as he will.


In preparing this book the works most frequently consulted have been Pliny's Natural History, Browne's Enquiries into Vulgar and Common Errors, Beazley's Dawn of Modern Geography, Frazer's Golden Bough, Tylor's Primitive Culture, Hakluyt’s Principal Voyages of the English Nation, and Pinkerton's Collection of Voyages and Travels. Both the Hakluyt and Pinkerton collections are libraries in themselves, each with some hundreds of titles, and the travel narratives they contain will not be separately listed here.

Following are the main sources drawn upon for the materials of this study: ABERCROMBY, JOHN. The Pre- and Proto-historic Finns. AELIAN. De Natura Animalium. ADAMS, CYRUS C. "The Sargasso Sea," in Harper's Monthly for 1907. ALBERTUS MAGNUS. Egyptian Secrets. ALDROVANDI. Opera Omnia, ALLEN, PAUL. History of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. ALEXANDER, HARTLEY BURR. North American Mythology; Latin

American Mythology. "ARABIAN NICHTS." Burton Edition. ANUTSCHIN. Interpretation of old Russian manuscript on "The

Unknown Peoples of the East,” translated by Dr. H. Mirchow in

proceedings of the Anthropological Society of Vienna, 1910. BABCOCK, William H. Legendary Islands of the Atlantic; “Atlantis

and Antillia,” in Geographic Review for 1917. BALCH, EDWIN Swift. "Atlantis, or Minoan Crete," in Geographic

Review for 1917. BANDELIER, A. F. The Gilded Man. BATES, HENRY WALTER. The Naturalist on the River Amazons. BEAZLEY, C. RAYMOND. The Dawn of Modern Geography. BEDDARD, FRANK EVARS. A Book of Whales. BINGHAM, HIRAM. Across South America. “BLACKWOOD's MAGAZINE” for 1904. “Heraldry.” BOTCHKAREVA, MARIA, Yashka: My Life as Peasant, Officer and Exile. BRADLEY, HENRY. Ptolemy's Geography of the British Isles. BREHAUT, ERNEST. An Encyclopedist of the Dark Ages; Isidore of Seville.


BREWER, E. COBHAM. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable.
BROOKS, Noah. First Across the Continent.
BROWNE, SIR THOMAS. Enquiries into Vulgar and Common Errors.
BUDDHIST Records of the Western World. Truebner's Oriental Series.
BUFFON, GEORGE Louis L. Natural History.
BULFINCH, THOMAS. Legends of Charlemagne; The Age of Fable.
BUNBURY, E. H. History of Ancient Geography.
BURTON, SIR RICHARD F. A Mission to Gélélé, King of Dahome.
BURCKHARDT, JOHN LEWIS. Travels in Arabia.

CARLYLE, THOMAS. The French Revolution.
CARNOY, ALBERT J. Iranian Mythology.
CAXTON, WILLIAM. History of Reynard the Fox.
CHAMBERLAIN, ALEXANDER F. “Recent Literature on the South Ameri-

can Amazons," in Journal of American Folk-Lore, 1911. CHAMBERS, W. & R. The Book of Days. "CHAMBERS JOURNAL,” for 1844. "The Dwarf Nation Idea." CHARNAY, DÉSIRÉ. The Ancient Cities of the New World. CHURCHWARD, ALBERT. The Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man. Cook, CAPTAIN JAMES. Voyages of Discovery. CORONADO. His Journey as Told by Himself and His Followers,

translated by George Parker Winship. Cox, SIR GEORGE W. An Introduction to the Science of Comparative

Mythology and Folklore.
CTESIAS, Indika. Translation by John W. McCrindle.
CUVIER, GEORGES. Animal Kingdom.

DIODORUS SICULUS. The Historical Library.
DISRAELI, ISAAC. Curiosities of Literature.
Dixon, ROLAND B. Oceanic Mythology.
DONNELLY, IGNATIUS. Atlantis: The Antediluvian World.
DOUGHTY, CHARLES M. Travels in Arabia Deserta.

“ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA.” Ninth and eleventh editions. “ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGION AND Ethics.” EVANS, E. P. Animal Symbolism in Ecclesiastical Architecture; The

Criminal Prosecution and Capital Punishment of Animals.

FISHER, RUTH B. On the Borders of Pigmy Land.
FISKE, John. Myths and Myth Makers.
Fox, WILLIAM SHERWOOD. Greek and Roman Mythology.
FRANCE, ANATOLE. Penguin Island.
FRAZER, J. G. The Golden Bough; Folk-Lore in the Old Testament.

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