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a secondary sense only; now a secondary sense” (as he pretends) "is fanatical, chimerical, and contrary to all scholastic rules of interpretation : Consequently, Jesus not being prophesied of in the Jewish Writings, his pretensions are false and groundless.”—His conclusion, the reader sees, stands on the joint support of these two Propositions, That there is no Jewish Prophecy which relates to Jesus in a primary sense ; and That a secondary sense is enthusiastical and unscholastic. If either of these fail, his phantom of a conclusion sinks again into nothing.

Though I shall not omit occasionally to confute the first, yet it is the falshood of the second I am principally concerned to exposeThat there are Jewish prophecies which relate to Jesus in their direct and primary sense, hath been proved with much force of reason and learning ; But, that secondary Prophecies are not enthusiastical and unscholastic, hath not been shewn and insisted on, by the Writers on this question, with the same advantage. The truth is, the nature of a DOUBLE SENSE in Prophecies hath been so little seen or enquired into, that some Divines, who agree in nothing else, have yet agreed to second this assertion of Mr. Collins, and with the same frankness and confidence to pronounce that a double sense is indeed enthusiastical and unscholastic. To put a stop therefore to this growing evil, sown first by Socinus, and since become so pestilent to Revelation, is not amongst the last purposes of the following discourse.

1. It hath been shewn, that one of the most ancient and simple Modes of human converse was communicating the conceptions by an expressive Action. As this was of familiar use in Civil matters, it was natural to carry it into Religious. Hence, we see God giving his instructions to the Prophet, and the Prophet delivering God's commands to the People in this very manner.

Thus far the nature of the action, both in civil and religious matters, is exactly the


But in Religion it sometimes happens that a STANDING Information is necessary, and there the Action must be continually repeated : This is done by holding out the particular Truth (thus to be preserved) in a religious Rite. Here then the Action begins to change its nature ; and, from a mere significative mark, of only arbitrary import like words or letters, becomes an action of moral import, and acquires the new name of TYPE. Thus God, intending to record the future sacrifice of Christ in Action, did it by the periodic Sacrifice of a lamb without blemish. This was not merely and so diRECTLY significative of Christ (like the Command to Abraham); but being a religious Rite, and so having a moral import, it was typical, though NOT DIRECTLY significative, of him. The very same may be said of the Temporal rewards of the Law; they were properly typical of the

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Spiritual rewards of the Gospel, and had a moral import of their own, as being the real sanction of the Law.

Again, It hath been shewn,* how, in the gradual cultivation of Speech, the expression by Action was improved and refined into an ALLEGORY or Parable ; in which the words carry a double meaning ; having, besides their obvious sense which serves only for the Envelope, one more material, and hidden. With this figure of speech all the moral writings of Antiquity abound. But when this figure is transferred from Civil use to Religious, and employed in the writings of inspired Men, to convey information of particular circumstances in two distinct Dispensations, to a people who had an equal concern in both, it is then what we call a DOUBLE SENSE ; and undergoes the very same change of its nature that an expressive action underwent when converted into a Type ; that is, both the meanings, in the DOUBLE SENSE, are of moral import ; whereas in the Allegory, one only of the meanings is so : And this (which arises out of the very nature of their conversion, from Civil to Religious matters) is the only difference between expressive actions and TYPES : and between allegories and DOUBLE SENSES.

From hence it appears, that as TYPES are only religious expressive Actions, and DOUBLE SENSES only religious Allegories, and neither receive any change but what the very manner of bringing those Civil figures into Religion necessarily induces, they must needs have, in this their tralatitious state, the same LogICAL FITNESS they had in their natural. Therefore as expressive Actions, and Allegories, in Civil discourses, are esteemed proper and reasonable modes of information, so must TYPES and DOUBLE SENSES in Religious ; for the end of both is the same, namely, COMMUNICATION OF KNOWLEDGE. The consequence of this is, that Mr. Collins's proposition, that a secondary or double sense is enthusiastical and unscholastic (the necessary support of his grand Argument) is entirely overthrown.

This is the true and simple origin of types and DOUBLE SENSES : which our Adversaries, through ignorance of the rise and progress of Speech, and unacquaintance with ancient Manners, have insolently treated as the issue of distempered brains, and the fondlings of Visionaries and Enthusiasts.

II. Having thus shewn their logical propriety, or that they are rational Modes of information, I come now to vindicate their Religious use, and to shew that they are well suited to that Religion in which we find them employed. An Objection which, I conceive, may be made to this use, will lead us naturally into our Argument. The objection is this : “It hath been shewn, that these oblique Modes

In the second volume, pp. 201, et seq. 1 In the present volume, p. 3, et seq.

| See note 111, at the end of this book.

of converse, though at first invented out of necessity, for general information, were employed, at length, to a mysterious secretion of knowledge; which though it might be expedient, useful, and even necessary both in civiL MATTERS and in FALSE RELIGION, could never be so in moRAL MATTERS, and in the TRUE RELIGION; for this having nothing to hide from any of its followers, Types and Double senses (the same mysterious conveyance of knowledge in Sacred matters, which allegoric words or Actions are in Civil) were altogether unfit to be employed in it."

To this I answer, The JEWISH RELIGION, in which these Types and Secondary senses are to be found, was given to one single People only ; just as the CHRISTIAN is offered to all Mankind : Now the Christian, as Mr. Collins * himself labours to prove, professes to be grounded on the Jewish. If therefore Christianity was not only professedly, but really grounded on Judaism and the supposition is strictly logical in a defence of Types and Double senses, whose reality depends on the reality of that relation) then Judaism was preparatory to Christianity, and Christianity the ultimate end of Judaism : But it is not to be supposed that there should be an intire silence concerning this ultimate Religion during the preparatory, when the notice of it was not only highly proper, but very expedient: 1. first, to draw those under the preparatory Religion, by just degrees to the ultimate ; a provision the more necessary, as the nature and genius of the two Religions were different, the one carnal, the other spiritual : 2. secondly, to afford convincing evidence to future, Ages of the truth of that Ultimate Religion ; which evidence, a circumstantial prediction of its advent and nature so long before hand, effectually does afford.t The Ultimate Religion therefore must have had some notice given of it, in the Preparatory : and nothing was better fitted for this purpose than the hyperbolical genius of the Eastern Speech. Thus, when Isaiah says, Unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given, and the government shall be

his shoulder : And his name shall be called, Wonderful, Counsellor, The Mighty God, the Everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace, Mr. Collins observes, it is the eastern hyperbole which prevents our seeing that a Jewish Monarch is literally and directly spoken of. Should we allow this, yet we still see, that such a language was admirably fitted to connect together the first and


• “Christianity is founded on Judaism, and the New Testament on the Old; and Jesus is the person said in the New Testament to be promised in the Old, under the character of the Messiah of the Jews, who, as such only, claims the obedience and submission of the world. Accordingly it is the design of the authors of the New, to prove all the parts of Christianity from the Old Testament, which is said to contain the words of eternal life, and to represent Jesus and his apostles as fulfilling by their mis. sion, doctrines, and works, the predictions of the Prophets, the historical parts of the Old Testament, and the Jewish Law; which last is expressly said to prophesy of, or testify Christianity."-"Grounds and Reasons,” &c. pp. 4, 5.

See note KKK, at the end of this book.

second Senses : the hyperbole becoming a simple speech, when transferred from a Jewish Monarch to the monarch of the world.

Our next inquiry will be, in what manner this notice must needs be given. Now the nature of the thing shews us it could not be directly and openly ; 80 as to be understood by the People, at the time of giving : because this would have defeated God's intermediate purpose; which was to train them, by a long discipline, under his preparatory Dispensation. For, this being a Religion founded only on temporal Sanctions, and burdened with a minute and tiresome Ritual, had the People known it to be only preparatory to another, founded on better Promises and easier Observances, they would never have born the yoke of the Law, but would have shaken off their subjection to Moses before the fulness of Time had brought their spiritual Deliverer amongst them; as, without this knowledge, they were but too apt to do, on every imaginary prospect of advantage. But St. ChrysosTOM will inforce this observation with more advantage. "Had the Jews” (says he) “ been taught from the beginning that their Law was temporary and to have an end, they would have certainly despised it. On this account, it seemed good to the divine Wisdom to throw a veil of obscurity over the Prophecies which related to the Christian Dispensation."* This information, therefore, was to be delivered with caution ; and conveyed under the covert language of their present Economy. Hence arose the fit and necessary use of TYPES and SECONDARY SENSES. For the only safe and lasting means of conveyance were their PUBLIC RITUAL, and the WRITINGS

And a Speaking action, and an Allegoric speech, when thus employed, had all the secrecy that the occasion required. We have observed, that in the simpler use of speaking by Action, the Action itself hath no moral import': and so, the information having but one moral meaning, that which it conveys is clear and intelligible. But where a Rite of Religion is used for this Speaking action, there the action hath a moral import ; and so the information having two moral meanings, that which it conveys is more obscure and mysterious. Hence it appears that this mode of speaking by action, called a Type, is exactly fitted for the information in question. Just so it is again with the SECONDARY SENSE : In the mere allegory, the representing image has no moral import: in the secondary sense, for a contrary reason (which the very term imports), the representing image hath a moral import; and so, acquires the same fitting obscurity with information by Types. For the typical Ritual, and the double Prophecy, had each its obvious sense in the present nature and future fortune of the Jewish Religion and Republic.

And here we are easily led into the essential difference (so much to the honour of

Homilia prima, " De Prophetarum Obscuritate.”


Revelation) between the Pagan Oracles or Prophecies, and the Jewish. The obscurity of the Pagan arose from the ambiguity, equivocation or jargon OF EXPRESSION; the obscurity of the Jewish from the figurative representation OF THINGS. The First (independent of any other Religion) proceeded from ignorance of futurity; the Latter, dependent on the Christian, proceeded from the necessity that those to whom the Prophecies were delivered should not have too full a knowledge of them.

Dr. Middleton, indeed, would fain persuade us, that the Oracles, or, as he chuses to call them, the Prophecies of the Pythian Apollo, were neither better nor worse, but exactly of the same absurd construction with the Scripture Prophecies. He would hardly venture to controvert what I have said of their logical fitness and propriety, as a mode of information in the abstract, because this would shew him ignorant of the nature and progress of human converse.

Much less, I suppose, would he say, that this mode of information was not suited to the genius of the Jewish Religion ; since he owns that to be only a preparatory System calculated to open and to prepare the way for one more perfect; and consequently, that it must be so contrived as to connect, and at the same to hide from the vulgar eye, the two parts of the Dispensation, and the relation they have to one another. Now there is no conceivable way of doing this but by types and secondary senses. What then occasioned this insult upon them? That which supports all our free Writers in their contemptuous treatment of Religion, their mistaking the ABUSE of the thing for the thing ITSELF; and giving the interpretations of men, or the Doctrines of Churches, for Articles of faith or Scripture history. What hath been here said will shew the extreme weakness of this ingenious man's parallel between the Scripture Prophecies and the Oracles of the Pythian Apollo.—" The PROPHECIES of the Pythian Apollo” (says he) “were indeed obscure, equivocal and ambiguous, admitting not only different but contrary senses ; so that the character here given of the Scripture Prophecies was undoubtedly true of them, that no event could restrain them to one determinate sense, when they were originally capable of many. For if the obvious sense failed, as it often did, to the ruin of those who acted upon it, there was another always in reserve, to secure the veracity of the Oracle : till this very character of its ambiguous and ænigmatical senses, confirmed by constant observation, gradually sunk its credit, and finally detected the imposture.' The prophecies of the Pythian Apollo were obscure, equivocal and ambiguous. And this (says he) was the character of the Scripture Prophecies. Just otherwise, as is seen above. Scripture Prophecies were obscure ; but the obscurity arose

Examination of the Bishop of London's Discourses on Prophecy,” &c. pp. 89, 90.


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