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ception of its adverse dispensations, in
ancient and modern times, iii. 287—
Job's opinion of the equality and ine-
quality of, 289-revival of an equal,
to the chosen race, 364-considerations
on God's using human instruments in
the dispensations of, 460-considera-
tions on God's using temporary
plagues in the dispensations of, 466
Providence, extraordinary, a necessary
consequence of the Jewish theocracy,
ii. 489-illustrated from Solomon's
prayer, at the dedication of the tem-
ple, 500; from Ezekiel, 501; from
Amos, 501-evidences of its ceasing,
504-the ease with which the preten-
sion to it might have been carried on,
504 the mention of the inequalities
of, by the sacred writers, accounted
for, 506

Psammitichus, his scheme to establish an
intercourse between Egypt and the
Grecian states, ii. 206
Psyche, the ancient story of, explained,
i. 305
Punishments, how applied in civil so-
ciety, i. 119 of the crimes of parents
on their children, on what principle
only to be vindicated, ii. 98
Purgatory, remarks on Virgil's account
of, i. 262-the inhabitants of, 263
Pyramids of Egypt, probable reasons
why they exhibit no hieroglyphic
inscriptions, ii. 383-the Egyptian
architecture formed on the idea of,
383-not temples, but sepulchres, 384
-alluded to in the book of Job, iii.
Pyrrhonians, and Academics, their prin-
ciples compared, i. 425-their origin,


Pythagoras, his knowledge in physics
established in late experience concern-
ing earthquakes, i. 424; ii. 70-an
inquiry into the principles of his phi-
losophy, i. 434-his legislative fame,
435-taught several doctrines which
he did not believe, 444
Pythagoreans, their notions of providence,
i. 475-their tenets concerning the
human soul, 484


Quakers, their motives for rejecting the
institution of baptism examined into,
iii. 74
Quaternion, philosophic, their opinion
of the soul, i. 483


Rachel, the story of her stealing her
father's gods, examined, iii. 269
Rainbow, first creation and reason of, ii.


Reason, the only test of truth, i. 87-the
use of, in the discovery of truth, 101;

iii. 328 why discredited in religious
controversy, i. 471
Redemption by Christ, had a retrospect
from the fall, iii. 365—an act of grace,
not of debt, 366-the means employed
in that great work inquired into, 368
Regulus. Cicero's inquiry into his obli-

gation to return to Carthage, i. 468
Religion, the protection of, necessary in
all governments, i. 107-reply to
Bayle's opinion, that a man devoid of
religion may be sensible of honour,
146-always the peculiar care of the
magistrate, 167 the necessity of
uniting it to the state, 339-brief view
of the state of, in the ancient world,
357-supposed by the sages to be cal-
culated only for the service of the
state, 415-the double doctrine of the
ancients considered, 417—its truth ma-
nifested by its use to society, ii. 1—if
admitted to have been invented by
statesmen, not therefore false, 5-an
inquiry into the first origin of, 27-no
people ever found without one, 47-
Hooker's sentiments on the political
use of, 48-too great an attention to
civil liberty subversive of, 85—a com-
parison of the many religions that
have existed in the world, the clew to
the true one, 140-the absurdity of
any human legislature enforcing it by
penal laws, 435-Christian and Mo-
saic necessarily dependent on some
preceding religion, 444-the care of
legislators in the propagation of, iii. 246
-acquired naturally by Adam and
Eve, 346-first revealed in paradise,
348-reasonableness of a doctrine, no
proof, but a presumption, of its divine
original, 408-miracles, the only proof
of a doctrine being from God, 409—
prophecy an additional evidence, 422

, established, the voice of nature,
i. 339-the nature of, 340-necessary
to society, 340-danger from its devi-
ating from the truth, 344-necessity
of its alliance with the state, 345-d-
vantages to the magistrate from such
an alliance, 345-what it receives from
the state, 350 what it communi-
cates to the state, 351-with a test
law, the universal voice of nature, 355
-speech of Posthumius on the intro-
duction of foreign worship at Rome,
356 causes which facilitated it, 357
-good purposes of, 358-distinction
between established and tolerated,
according to Dionysius Halicarnasseus,
374-advantages of establishments, ii.

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-, particular objections against,
answered, ii. 60-some one embraced
by all mankind, 137-natural infer-
ences from this general propensity,
138 the use and necessity of it, 140
Revelations, pagan, one circumstance
common to all, ii. 141-attributed by
the primitive fathers to the devil, 142
Reward, the sanction of, explained, i.

117-enforced only by religion, 120
Rhea, observations on the fable of, ii. 236
Rhetoric, use of, disallowed at the court
of Areopagus, i. 82

Riddles, propounded by the Hebrew
sages, as mutual trials of sagacity, ii.

Ridicule, the favourite figure of speech
among freethinkers, i. 81-Shaftes-
bury's justification of, examined, 82-
not the test of truth, 86, 100-how far
it may be safely made use of, 87-
the defence of, by Dr. Akenside, exa-
mined, 99-the proper detector of error,

Rites, legal and patriarchal, not to be
confounded, ii. 313

Ritual law of the Jews, made in refer-

ence to the Egyptian superstition, ii.
310 this no objection to the divinity
of it, 324-characterized in Ezekiel,
337-explained, 337

Romans, to what their ruin was owing,
i. 160 their law respecting tolerated
religions, 372-excellence of their

constitution, 408 their fear of the
gods, 408 their regard for an oath,
409 their use of sacrifice at con-
cluding treaties of peace, iii. 372
Rome, Christian, whether its supersti-
tions borrowed from the pagan city,
examined, ii. 360

Rose, what the emblem of among the
ancients, i. 302-origin of the proverb
"under the rose," 302
Runic alphabet, when and why changed
for the Roman, ii. 208
Rutherforth, Dr., his notion of the effect
the withdrawing the sanctions of the
Jewish law had on the obligatory force
of that law, examined, ii. 491-his
notions of the temporal sanctions of
the Jewish law being continued under
the gospel, examined, 508-his notions
of inefficacy of action without speech,
examined, iii. 299


Sabbath, a positive institution, ii. 313-
the Jews' breach of, by circumcision,
considered, 404-its origin, 405
Sacred band of Thebans, Plutarch's

remarks on the death of, i. 244
Sacrifice, origin and nature of, explained,
iii. 370-made use of by the Romans
at the ratification of peace, 372—Mo-
saic, examined, 377-the origin and
progress of human, 379-of Christ on
the cross, considered, 388-the admis-
sion of it into the Mosaic ritual, con-
sidered, 381-feast upon the sacrifice,
a type of the Lord's supper, 384
Sacrifices, human, the command to Abra-
ham to offer up his son Isaac vindi-
cated from the objection of giving a
divine sanction to, iii. 188, 192-
Bryant's opinion of their origin, ex-
ploded, 449-Voltaire's opinion con-
futed, 451-the command that "none
devoted shall be redeemed," examined,
Sages, ancient, unanimous in thinking
the doctrine of a future state of rewards
and punishments necessary to the well-
being of society, i. 407-did not believe
in a future state, 414-held it lawful
for the public good, to say one thing
when they thought another, 414
Sallust, his opinion of the divine nature,
i. 477

Samuel, his conduct in establishing the
regal form of government in Judea, ii.
Sanchoniatho, arguments proving that
his is the history narrated in the
Eleusinian mysteries, i. 212-extract
from his history, 213
Sanhedrim, why instituted, ii. 317-
when established, 321-motives of
Jesus Christ's evasive reply to their
interrogations, 321

Satan, reflections on his character as
represented by Job, iii. 112-extract
from the author's sermon on the fall
of Satan, 476

Saul, the phrase of his being among the
prophets, explained, ii. 318-charac-
terized, 319

Savages, American, why averse to the
arts of civil society, i. 378
Scarron, his artifice in ridiculing the
sentiment of Sulpicius, i. 84
Scenical representations, in what respect
without moral import, iii. 191
Scepticism, characterized, iii. 323
Sceptre of Judah, the common notions of
that phrase examined, ii. 477-true
sense of, pointed out, 487
Scriptures, sacred, a summary view of
their contents, iii. 11-general rule for
the interpretation of, 130-three points
recommended to the attention of
commentators, 149-much abused in
the search after truth, 327
Self-love, the operation of, in mankind,
traced, i. 144

Sempiternus, the true import of that word
ascertained, i. 494
Seneca, his Consolation against the Fear
of Death, i. 457-accused by St. Aus-
tin of duplicity, ii. 69

Serpent, in the fall of man, the true
meaning of, ascertained, iii. 3-how the
sentence passed on it is to be under-
stood, 132


crooked, in Job and Isaiah, the
meaning of, explained, iii. 116
Sesostris, account of, from Diodorus
Siculus, ii. 153-and Osiris, arguments
against the identity of, in opposition to
Sir Isaac Newton, 249 and Osiris
distinguished, 255–260—who, 255,
divides Egypt by transverse canals, 256
-his motives for, 288
Shaftesbury, Lord, remarks on his cha-
racter, i. 89-his unfair treatment of
Mr. Locke, 89

118 the purpose of its institution,
341-the extent of its care, 341-in-
vented for intractable spirits, 408
Society, religious, the end of its institu-
tion, i. 342-sovereign and independ-
ent on the civil, 342—not possessed of
any civil coactive power, 342-the ob-
ject of its care, 343
Socinians, examination of their opinion
concerning the death of Christ, iii.

Socrates, review of the dispute between
him and Aristophanes, i. 85-why he
declined initiation into the mysteries,
220 remarks on the latter part of his
conduct, 415-the first who called off
philosophy from the contemplation of
nature to morals, 428 the only Greek
philosopher who really believed a fu-
ture state of rewards and punish-
ments, 429 the method of his philo-
sophy, 431-note on the effect of the
poison, ii. 68
Socratic method of disputing, what so
called, i. 432

Solomon, alludes to the Mysteries in the
book of Ecclesiasticus, (iv. 17, 18,) i.
278 his violations of the Mosaic law
remarked, ii. 282-his prayer at the
dedication of the temple, illustrative
of the particular providence over the
Jewish nation, 500-in his prayer at
the dedication of the temple, requests
only a continuance of temporal re-
wards and punishments, iii. 2-how
perverted to idolatry, 106
Solomon's Song, a representation of
Christ's union and marriage with the
church, iii. 286

Sophists, Greek, some account of, i. 432
Soul, the several senses in which the
ancients conceived the permanency of
it, i. 413-its future existence in a
state of rewards and punishments
taught, but disbelieved, by the philo-
sophers, 413-Cicero's idea of, 461-
an inquiry into our conceptions of,
478 three species of, admitted by the
ancients, 479-opinions of various
philosophers, 488-the opinions of the
philosophers on the immortality of, ii.
78 the sentiments of the Jews con-
cerning, under the law, iii. 24-exami.
nation of the notion of the sleep of,
25 the mention of its future exist-
ence by Moses, and by following writ-
ers, to be distinguished, 73-imma-
terial, common to the whole animal
creation, 131-living, in what sense to
be understood as used in the history
of the creation of man, 132-inquiry
into the nature of, 352-different opi-
nions on the, 349

Speech, the origin and history of, ii. 185
the early acquisition of, by Adamn
and Eve, iii. 347

Sherlock, Bishop, his notion of the tribal
sceptre of Judah, examined, ii. 479
Shuckford, Dr., his remarks on the an-

cient ritual law, examined, ii. 337, 403
Sibyl, how that character in the Æneis is

to be understood, i. 250
Signs, memorable instance of divine in-
struction communicated by, in the case
of Abraham, iii. 170
Silenus, whence Ovid derived his idea of,
i. 441
Sleeping scheme, the principles of, ex-
amined, iii. 25
Society, civil, the first invention of, and
the motives to, i. 114-no preservative
against moral disorders, 115—unable to
enforce the sanction of reward, i. 117
-which is only to be supplied by reli-
gion, 120-mutual stipulations between
magistrate and people on entering into,


Spencer, an examination of the argu-
ment of his treatise, De Theocratia
Judaica, ii. 474 examination of
Sykes's defence of his argument, iii.

Spinosists, their opinion of the human
soul, i. 479

Spiritual courts, the end and use of, i.

State, its inducements to seek an alliance

with the church, i. 344-what it com-
municates to the church, 350—what it
receives from the church, 351- its
conduct where it includes more than
one religion, 353

Statues, the first rise of worshipping, in
human form, ii. 262
Stebbing, Dr., an examination of his

objection to the argument of the Di-
vine Legation of Moses, ii. 51-his
arguments of Moses's divine legation,
equally applicable to Mahomet, 512
his exposition of Lev. xviii. 5, exa-
mined, iii. 141-an examination of his
Considerations on the Command to
Abraham to offer up Isaac, 184, 292,
296, 300, 301, 304, 305, 308, 311,
312, 314, 315

Stillingfleet, his opinion of the Egyptian
hieroglyphics, ii. 195

Stoical renovation, what, i. 457
Stoics, their practice contrary to their
principles, i. 148-their notions of
death, 456-their opinions of the soul,

Strabo, his opinion concerning the insti-
tution of the Mysteries, i. 210-his
opinion as to the necessary religious
doctrines by which to govern and re-
strain the multitude, 411-his account
of the Mosaic doctrine of the Deity,
Stratonicean, whether the principles of a,
be capable of distinguishing the moral
difference between virtue and vice, i.

Suicide, why consigned by Virgil to pur-
gatory, i. 263 condemned in the
Eleusinian Mysteries, and by Virgil,
286 authors who have written against
it, 396

Sulpicius, his reflections on the sight of
Grecian ruins, i. 84

Sun, the various names under which it
was worshipped, ii. 35
Superstition, in ancient history accounted

for, i. 173 whence derived, and the
cure of it, 337-whether preferable to
atheism, ii. 6-examination of Plu-
tarch's parallel between, 8-of lord
Bacon's parallel between it and athe-
ism, 20

Swift, his observations on Toland and
Asgill, i. 338

Sykes, his answer to a censure passed on
Spencer's opinion of the Jewish theo-

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Theistical opinion, concerning the human
soul, i. 479
Theocratic government of the Jews, the
reasons and conveniences of the, ii.
419-436-every subject a priest under
the, 430-particular inquiry into the
circumstances of the, 431-462-why
willingly received by them, 438-how
long subsisting, 468—when abolished,
476 necessarily including an extraor-
dinary providence, 489 illustrated
from Solomon's prayer at the dedica-
tion of the temple, 500; from Ezekiel,
501; from Amos, 501-Dr. Sykes's
answer to the censure passed on Spen-
cer, considered, iii. 54
Theology, natural, the obligations flow-
ing from, as given by lord Boling-
broke, i. 332

-, pagan, three systems of, i. 206
Theopompus, the common source from
which both Ovid and Virgil borrowed,
and wherein they erred in deviation
from him, i. 441

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Truth, whether possible to be made ridi-
culous, i. 83-reason the best test of,
87-reason and ridicule considered in
the trial of, 100-reasons for veiling it
in Mysteries, 200-and utility, their
coincidence, and the mutual proof
they afford of each other, ii. 2-in-
quiry into what it is, iii. 324
Turnus, remarks on the character of, in
the Æneis, i. 240

Type and symbol, their difference ex-
plained, iii. 382

Types, the meaning of, ascertained, iii.
198-derivation of, 200- argument
deduced from the general passion for,
236 retained by Mr. Whiston's opi-
nion, whilst he rejects double senses,

Typhon, the fable of, explained, ii. 227,


Tyrants, ancient, great encouragers of
religion, and from what motives, i. 176


Unity of the Deity, taught in the Eleu-
sinian Mysteries, i. 276

Universality, the want of, no objection
against the truth of the Mosaic dis-
pensation, ii. 61

Utility, indicative of truth, ii. 2


Vane, Sir Harry, his character, ii. 25
Vedam, the antiquity of it, ii. 361
Vine-tree, Ezekiel's prophecy of it, ex-
plained, ii. 421

Vigils, supposed to have originated from

the Eleusinian Mysteries, i. 225—sup-
pressed on the same account, 225
Virgil, an exposition of his allegory of
the descent of Æneas to the shades, i.
235-an inquiry into the nature of the
Æneid, 235 remarks on his destroy-
ing the myrtle which dropped blood,
237-remarks on his making ships
become deities, 238-remarks on the
character of Turnus, 240- remarks
on the character of Dido, 240-re-
marks on Voltaire's criticism on this
story, 241-remarks on his account of
the court of Evander, 242-remarks
on the episode of Nisus and Euryalus,
243-recommends adoption, 243—ex-
planation of the golden bough, 251-
his account of the Mysteries of Myth-
ras, 256
exposition of his cha-
racter of Charon, 260-explanation of
the dog Cerberus, 261-comment on
his topography of the infernal regions,
262 remarks on the episodes of Dido
and Deiphobus, 268-his description
of Elysium compared with that of
Homer, 274-infected with Spinosism,
277 remarks on his description of
the shield of Eneas, 283
Virtue, three different excitements to, i.
130 natural and moral obligations to,
distinguished, 135—an inquiry into
the nature of, under a dispensation of
rewards and punishments, iii. 47
Voice of the sign, origin of, ii. 185
Voltaire, remarks on his criticism on the

Dido of Virgil, i. 241-examination of
his method of accounting for the per-
secuting spirit among Christians, 400
-examination of his objections to the
argument of the Divine Legation of
Moses, ii. 50-his account of the Chi-
nese method of printing, 374- his
account of the Mosaic dispensation
examined, 421-his misrepresentation
of Judea refuted, 425-some mistakes
in his treatise on toleration, noted, iii.
66 his opinion of the origin of hu-
man sacrifices, confuted, 433-his ac-
cusation of the Jews' sacrificing a
whole nation, examined, 445
Vossius, his account of the origin of
idolatry, refuted, ii. 233
Vows, the origin and obligation of, con-
sidered, iii. 454-the command that
none devoted shall be redeemed,"
examined, 454-Jephthah's rash vow
considered, 458

Vulcan, Sir Isaac Newton's account of,
ii. 279 compared with that of Homer,

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Wants of mankind, real and fantastic,

inquiry into, and the effects of, i. 154
War, the different situations of coun-

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