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“ Then, lassie, lead thy grandsire on,
And to the holy water bring;
And I would taste the healing spring,
"The holy spring is turn'd aside,
We have now seen Wensleydale in two distinct eras: the first full of light and glory, illuminated by pure truth, and holy devotion, serene as the summer sky before storms arise,—the second gloomy and tempestuous, overshadowed by terrifying clouds, rendered appalling by their scorching lightnings, and continuous thunders.
We have watched Briton, Roman, Saxon, Dane, and Norman succeed each other on the fair banks of Yorewe have seen how with each a new religion camechangeful and various, till St. Paulinus at last planted the banner of the Cross, and our northern fathers became Christian
men, devout members of the Holy Church. Their piety and their good deeds edified us—their devotion reproved our słoth. We saw them erecting on every side those beautiful temples of God which yet stand before our eyes, even in desolation reminding us of the happy Past, monuments of truth unchanging, of that Church which we know cannot err, because Her Divine Spouse has promised to be with her till the consummation of all things.
Another and a mournful scene it has also been ours to witness, when we saw the hand of tyranny stretched forth to pollute these holy places-overthrow the sacred altars— pillage the monasteries—and slay or drive into the wilderness their pious inmates. We heard the voice of lamentation which resounded in Wensleydale when the monks were chased away, and the poor were deprived of shelter and relief; and as the years went on, and the new order of things waxed stronger and stronger, we likewise saw how those poor were punished for their poverty.
All this we watched, until at last a glimmering of light appeared, the clouds began to disperse, and the day of persecution reached its close. Not even yet are we in full sunshine, neither do we enjoy the beauty of the First Day—its happiness—its grandeur ; but resting now relieved from utter darkness, let us, kind reader, turn our attention to the many interesting objects the vale presents, in their existing state, and so view Wensleydale in THE PRESENT DAY. Much has been lost during the last three centuries, and yet much remains. Adjacent to Mashamshire lie the lands of JERVEAUX,
forming the eastern extremity of the valley, south of Yore. We have already seen that this Cistertian Abbey was founded at Fors, by Acharius Fitz-Bardolph, about the year 1144, removed to the lands of East Witton in 1156, and finally demolished by Henry VIII., in 1538.(1)
(1) At the time of the Dissolution the revenues of the Abbey were estimated as follows. Value in temporals in the courts of York. The Abbey, with the gardens, fields, closes, and mills in home occupation 65s. Value of farms, &c., held by the monks themselves. Lasingby-super-Wyske, 201. Aykkarthe, 131. 6s. 8d. Rokquicke, 201. Kylgramhow, 101. Newhouse, 61. Total 691. 6s. 8d. The following manors, farms, tenements, &c., were valued as under: Newstede Grange, 141. 13s. 4d. Helfahall, 4l. 13s. 4d. Tunstall, 100s. Ryswyk, 41. 138. 4d. Manor of Wensladall, 681. 13s. 4d. Horton, 321. 5s. Village of Est Witton, 321. 10s. Hutton Hange, 91. 6s. 8d. Fyngall, 91. Thornton Stewerd, 63s. 4d. Various hamlets in Newton-in-villos, 13s. 4d. Yarme, 3s. 4d. Hunton, 3s. 2d. For the rent of Burton, 12d. Middleton-in-Mires, 46s. 8d. Feryby, 3s. 4d. Brompton, 8s. 8d. Thirnetowft, 23s. 4d. Walborne, 7s. 8d. Marske, 10s. Somercotts et Boston, 60s. 8d. Coleborne, 5s. Gillyng, 6s. Wynseley, 2s. 6d. Moreton et Scruton, 20s. Sedbargh et Whassell, 178. 9d. Langton Whitwall, et Milesimby, 73s. 4d. Esilby, Leeming, et Upledon, Marske, 26s. 8d. Feldom, 41. 16s. 8d. Richemund, Derlyngton, and Alverton, 24s. 8d. Clifton, Milnby, and Kneeton, lls. 4d. Appleton, Thirn, and Crofte, 5s. Colde, Conyston, and Hawswell, 14s. The villa of Daltontravers, 41. 138.4d.
The destroyers did their work well. Apparently they razed the church almost to the foundations, leaving little but
Ellingstring, 738. 4d. Elyngton, 66s. 8d. Estapleton, 40s. Murecotte, 33s. 4d. Widdall, 42s. East Witton Mill, 20s. Ramshaw Mill, 13s. East Witton fulling Mill, 10s. Total 2271. 14s. 11d. Other rents, &c., 71. 20s. From Kenerdley, in Lancashire, 321. 8s. 4d. Total in temporals, 3401. 14s. 11d. Spirituals in the County of York. Tithes, oblations, and Easter offerings in the Rectory of Aykescarth, 711. Os. Od. Ditto in the Rectory of Aynderby, 211. 6s. 8d. Ditto in the Rectory of East Witton, 111. 15s. 6d. Ditto in the Rectory of West Witton, 101. 13s. 4d. Total in spirituals, 1141. 15s. 6d. Total annual value, 4551. 10s. 5d.
Out of this the House had to pay the following stipends and rents or feudal fees. To the three chaplains of the altar of St. Stephen, in the metropolitan church of York, on the foundation of Lord Scrope of Masham and Upsall, 201. To the vicars of the same church, on the obüit of the same Lord, at the feast of St. Martin, by composition, 41. To John Todd, master of the grammar school, and William Coke, master of the singing school at Durham, on the foundation of Thomas Langley, 161. 13s. 4d. To the chaplain of Middleton, co. Lanc, on the foundation of the same Thomas Langley, 106s. 8d. To the two chaplains at Laisinby, on the foundation of John Lyghgraves, 101. 13s. 4d. To the Lord of Bedall for the rents due from East Witton for maintaining three chaplains and two clerks in the chapel at Bedale, founded by Lord Brian Fitzalan, by composition, 338. 4d. To the chaplain of Gylling, by composition, 40s. To the chaplain of Leemyng, by composition, 66s. 8d. To the chaplain ofby composition, 6s. 8d. To the Vicar of Yerderby, by composition 131. 6s. 8d. To the Vicar of East Witton, 100s. To the Archdeacon of Richmond, the winter payment of Arkscarth, 26s. 8d. To the same the annual payment of Aynderby with steeple, 26s. 8d. To the Rector of Bedall, for his tithes in Hutton Hanger, 40s. To the Rector of Patrickbrompton for his tithes in Aykesburge, 33s. 4d. To the Vicar of North Alverton, for his tithes in Laisenby, by composition, 40s. To the Rector of Watlouse, for his tithes in Rokewyke, by composition, 13s. 4d. To the Rector of Fyngall, for his tithes in Fyngall, by composition, 6s. Payment to the church of Thornton, by composition, 2s. To the rector of Masham, for his tithes in Kylgrama, 4s. To the Monastery of the Blessed Mary at York, for Riswyk and Tunstall, 31s. 8d. To the Monastery of Fountaine, for Horton in Ribbisdayll, 20s. To the heirs of the Lord of Upsall, for Aykesburge, 26s. 8d. To the Priory of St. Martin's near Richmond, for Estwitton and Thornton, 72s. To the Castle of Middleham for Wenslaudall and Wyddall, 171. To the said Castle of Middleham for Thouffe in Wenslaudall, 7s. 8d. To the Lord of Burton in Lonsdall, for the wapentake of Horton in Ribbisdayll, 20s. To the Lord of Masham for Ellyngstrints, 7s. To the same Lord for Over Ellyngton, 10s. To the Lord of Bedall for Rockcywk, 8s. 8d. To George Metcalfe, pro libero et corrodio in Wenslaudalle, 33s. 4d. To the heirs of William Jacson, for Aykburge, 13s. 4d. To Thomas Luillints, pro libero redditu, 6s. 8d. Galfred Redman, for Horton, 6s. 8d. Luke Metcalfe, pro libero redditu in Estwitton, 40s. To Laurence Askewith, for Ellyngstring, 13d. To the Monastery of the Blessed Mary at York, pro libero redditu, 4d. To the Lord of Upsall, for Fyngall, 6s. 8d. To William Sutton, for Aykeburge, 13s. 4d. To Lord Connyers, for Appleton, 5s. To the Castle of Richmond, pro libero firma de Estwitton, Thornton, Fyngall, and other lands, 3s. 10d. ob. To Lord Conyers, pro libero
the bases of the columns. The roof of the Chapter-house was broken down; the Abbot's house, dormitory, cloisters, offices, &c., were unroofed, and the walls, in many parts, destroyed. In process of time earth and weeds accumulated over the neglected rubbish, underwood and briars grew in abundance, and at last nothing remained to mark the site except a few broken walls covered with ivy, and the tops of some arches nearly level with the surface.
So things continued till the late Thomas Bruce Brudenell Bruce, first Earl of Ailesbury, visited the place in 1805," and amongst a great variety of improvements projected upon his estate, was much pleased with an experiment that had been made by his steward—the late John Claridge, Esq., in digging down to the bottom of one of the arches, which proved to be the door of the Abbey Church, and led to a beautiful floor of tesselated pavement. His Lordship directed the whole of the ruin to be
firma de Horneby, 12d. To the church of Masham for the same, 5d. Total, 1631. Os. 8}d.
Feodis, &c. Lord Conyers, chief Seneschal of Richemundschire, 738. 4d. James Metcalfe, Seneschal in Wenslaudall, 53s. 4d. Richard Norton, Seneschal of Horton, 30s. Richard Bolde, Seneschal of Keverdley, 40s. William Gathred, Seneschal of Estwitton, by common seal, 106s. 8d. Matthew Thwaite, bailiff of the monastery, 46s. 8d. John Metcalfe, bailiff of Wenslaudalle, 40s. Simon Jacson, bailiff of Keverdley, 40s. Leonard Tailor, bailiff of Horton, 20s. William Hawe, bailiff of Fyngall 20s. Henry Askewithe, receiver and bailiff of Newsted, 20s. Peter Messi, bailiff of Dalton, Ellington and Ellingstring, 13s. 4d. James Nelson, bailiff of Somercotts and Boston, 20s. James Dent, bailiff of Tunstall and Riswick, 13s. 4d. William Barker, bailiff of the barony of Estwitton, 20s. James Twayth, receiver of the farms of Ayskcarth. Roger Mangy, ditto of Aynderby, 40s. John Dixon, ditto of Westwitton, 10s. James Dent, ditto of the farm of the church of Estwitton, 20s. Total, 331. 13s. 4d.
Obit. vir. in. Obiit of John Lighgraves, 138. 4d. Obiit of Thomas Langley, 13s. 4d. Obiit of Alan Standeley. In the whole, 21. Os. Od.
Elemosin. vir. Alms distributed to the poor on Sundays, Mondays, Tuesdays, and Thursdays, 26 quarters of corn, per annum, 101. 8s. 24 quarters brasii ordeaci' per annum, 81. Total, 181. 8s. Od. Similar alms distributed “pauperibus heremitis et pueris, in pane, allecibus, albis et rubiis, per annum, 41. 13s. 4d. Alms given in the parish of Ayscarth, 6s. 8d. In the parish of Estwitton, 6s. 8d. In the parish of Aynderby, 6s. 8d. Total, 231. 18s. Od. Grand Total of disbursements by the Abbey of Yorevalle, 2221. 12s. Od., leaving a clear yearly value of 2341. 18s. 5d.
explored, and cleared out, which was done in 1806 and 1807, at a very considerable expense.”(1) The site was then inclosed, partly by a sunk fence, and partly by a wall; and the grounds, with the exception of the interior of the buildings, tastefully planted with evergreens and flowers.
The ruins have ever since been kept in a careful manner, which reflects high credit on the Marquis of Ailesbury and his resident agents. The public are freely admitted at all reasonable hours. Over the entrance gateway is an inscription recording the foundation, demolition, and excavation.
The Abbey Church, including the choir, is 270 feet long. It has transepts, a door out of the south one leading into the sacristy, beyond which is the chapterhouse. The steps only of the high altar remain, but in the north transept an altar stands perfectly entire; a rare example. There were seven altars. Before the high
altar lies a statue of Lord FitzHugh, the crusader, in link mailthe armorial bearings on his shield are distinctly visible. The bases of the columns remain in a perfect condition. When the ruins were first excavated, the centre aisle was
found laid with a tesselated pavement in geometrical figures; this was soon so affected by the air and frost, that it was obliged to be taken up, not, however, before drawings had been taken by P. A. Reinagle, Esq. Jerveaux is peculiarly rich in monumental inscriptions. There are ten of these on slabs in the church, exclusive of one on the lowest step of the altar in the north transept.
The monuments in the church may be arranged as follows, proceeding from the great west door towards the high altar. Ist a mutilated slab, the two parts being put
(1) Maude, p. 83.