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stantly throughout the year; but on certain days others were added, as on the sabbath especially, when at the time the additional sacrifice was offered, the Levites recited the song of Moses in Deut. xxxii. “ Hear, O heavens,” &c. But this song was divided into six parts, one of which was sung each sabbath in succession. At the additional evening sacrifice, they recited the song of Moses, which is recorded Exod. xv., in the same manner. At the feast of trumpetsa on the first day of the year, they sang in the morning after the additional sacrifice for that day the 81st Psalm, and in the evening of the same day the 29th. At the passover they recited or sang six additional psalms b.

But it is the manner in which the singing was conducted that deserves the chief attention, as proving indisputably the perfectly social nature of this part of the service. “The singers,” says Lightfoot, "divided each of these psalms into three parts, making a considerable pause at the

# So called because the new year was ushered in with the sound of trumpets. Numb. xxviii. 9, 10. xxix. 1, 2.

b At the dedication of the second Temple, after the return from the Babylonian captivity, the 146th, 147th and 148th Psalms seem to have been sung; for in the Septuagint they are entitled “Psalms of Haggai and Zachariali,” as if they had been composed by them for the occasion. Prideaux'3 Conn. part i. book iïi. Lewis's Ant. vol. ii. chap. xix. And to this it may be added that the 120th and 14 following Psalms have been said to be entitled “songs of the steps," (not degrees,) because they were sung on the steps which led from the court into the Temple.

© Chap. vii. sect. 2.

end of each part; and when the singing and musical instruments stopped, in the intervals the trumpets sounded and the people worshiped," not by bowing the head only, but by responses, thus expressing their participation and concurrence.

This then was clearly.social worship: it was conducted by the Levites, and the people joined in it throughout.

From the whole of this account, then, it is evident that the entire service of the Temple was not only public, but as social as possible. It was the service of the whole people, conducted by officers appointed for this purpose.

The mode of prayer, it is true, was probably different from that in use among Christians. There is no proof that they had any minister to conduct this part of the services, and Prideaux says, that every one repeated what prayers he thought proper according to his own conceptions, referring to the instance of the Pharisee and publican, as mentioned by Christ". It appears however from Lightfoot's and other accounts of these services, on the best authority, that they had forms, and of these several have been given. The comment moreover upon the Talmud says expressly, that these were the prayers of the people; and Maimonides observes that their

b

a Luke xviii. 10, &c. Temp. Serv. ch. ix. sect. 6.

Maimonides, who lived about the end of the eleventh century of the Christian æra, was the most learned and least superstitious of the Jewish writers. “He was the Jewish oracle,"

prayers were at first free, and unrestricted with respect both to time and forms, but that after their return from the Babylonian captivity, they made use of forms, and at stated timesa. And with respect to the Temple service, the fact evidently was, that at the times of morning and evening sacrifice they had public prayers, in which all the people joined, either personally or by their representatives; and the outer court of the Temple being constantly open during the day, individuals went thither at other times, when they pleased, each to offer up his own prayer in his own thoughts and words; so that to infer from the instance of the Pharisee and publican, that all the prayers offered in the Temple were private, or individual and unsocial, would be just as reasonable as if a stranger who had never attended the religious worship of the Roman Catholics in the present day, should conclude that they had no public prayers, because he happened to go into one of their chapels when two or three individuals were repeating their prayers separately, as is commonly seen to be the case, after the public services are concluded.

says Lewis, "an author, as Cuneus observes, above our highest praise; the only man of that nation who had the good fortune to understand what it is to write seriously, and to the purpose.” (Preface to his Ant. p. 74.) Lightfoot and Vitringa have made ample use of his works, which treat at large of the services of the Temple and the Synagogue. He made an excellent Abridgment of the Talmud, and “ for this and his other works,” says Prideaux, "he was esteemed the best writer among the Jews.” Prideaux's Conn. part i. ook v. p. 228. · Vitringa de Syn. Vet. lib. iii.

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Whilst the Jews had forms of prayer which they were required to repeat at least three times a day, once in private, and if possible at the morning and evening service in the Temple, they were at liberty to use each for himself any other prayers he might think proper. And as it was considered to be the duty of all, who could, to be present at public prayers, considerable numbers usually attended on these occasions, as appears from Luke i. 10. This then was at least

prayer in society; and as they were in the habit of repeating the same forms, it was not individual and separate, but prayer in conjunction, or strictly social. However, the following circumstancesare decisive: Whilst the people themselves were praying in the outer court, the officers of the Temple, called the Israelites of the Station, who were the delegates of the people, were repeating the prayers in their behalf. And if they had no priest, or minister, to lead their devotions, the reason appears to

a Such was the practice of David and Daniel. Ps. lv. 17. Dan. vi. 10.

" Or the account attributed to him, which, if spurious, was still written at a very early period, and is sufficient authority for a fact of this kind, mentioned as it is incidentally, and without design. Zacharias, the officiating priest for the time, being detained longer than usual, as we are informed, by a vision in the Temple, the whole multitude that had been praying without in the court of the women, were waiting for him; and the reason of this was, that having finished their public prayers, they were expecting the benediction which the officiating priests always pronounced at the conclusion of this part of the services. (v. 22.) Lightfoot's Temp. Serv. ch. ix. sect. vi.

© It is not proved, at least, that there was no such leader.

have been this; “ The offering of incense,” as Prideaux observesa, “ upon the golden altar in the Holy Place, at every morning and evening, service in the Temple, at the time of the sacrifice, was instituted on purpose to offer up unto God the prayers of the people, who were then without praying unto him. And hence it was that St. Luke tells us, that while Zacharias went into the Temple to burn incense, the whole multitude were praying without at the time of incense.' And for the same reason it is that David prayed,

Let my prayers be set before thee as incense, and the lifting up of my hands as the evening sacrifice. And according to this usage is to be explained what we find in Revelation (ch. viii. 4, 5), for there it is said, 'An angel came and stood at the altar, having a golden censer, and there was given unto him much incense, that he should offer it up with the prayers of all saints upon the golden altar, which was before the throne; and the smoke of the incense, which came

Perhaps the Israelites of the Station were considered as such: they were denominated the angels of the people, like the reader of the prayers in the Synagogue. Or if not, there is a passage in Joel, already quoted (p. 41), ch. ii. 15–17, in which, when the congregation of all the people were gathered together, the priests are commanded to offer up prayers in their behalf, between the porch of the Temple and the altar. This probably was not inconsistent with the usual practice. See also 1 Maccabees, vii. 36, 37.

a Conn. part i. book vi. p. 383; Godwin's Moses and Aaron, lib. ii. ch. i.

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64. 6 Ps. cxli. 2.

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