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TH

HAT Handel was fupe. manner; being possessed, in his mid

rior in the strength and dle age and full vigour, of every boldness of his style, the richness of refinement and perfection of his his harmony, and complication of time : uniting the depth and elaboparts, to every composer who has rate contrivance of his own counbeen most admired for such excel. try, with Italian elegance and facilencies, cannot be disputed. And, lity; as he feems, while he resided while fugue, contrivance, and a south of the Alps, to have listened full score, were more generally re- attentively in the church, theatre, verenced than at present, he re- and chamber, to the most exquisite mained wholly unrivalled.

compofitions, and performers, of " I know it has been said that every kind, that were then existing. Handel was not the original and " And though we had cantatas immediate inventor of several spe- by Carissimi, Aleffandro Scarlatti, cies of music, for which his name Gasparini, and Marcello ; ducts by has been celebrated ; but, with re- Steffani and Clari ; vocalchorusles, spect to originality, it is a term to without instrumental accompaniwhich proper limits should be set, ments, by Palestrina, and our own before it is applied to the produc- Tallis, Bird, and Purcell; and, tions of any artist. Every inven- with accompaniments, by Carissimi tion is clumsy in its beginning, and as well as Paolo Colonna; with Shakspeare was not the first writer violin sonatas and concertos by Co. of plays, or Corelli the first com- relli and Geminiani ; yet it may poser of violin folos, sonatas, and with the utmost truth be asserted, concertos, though those which he that Handel added considerable produced are the best of his time; beauties to whatever.style or species nor was Milton the inventor of epic of composition be adopted, which, poetry. The fcale, harmony, and in a larger work, it would not be cadence of music, being fettled, it difficult to demonstrate, by examis impossible for any composer to in- ples. At present, I shall only venvent a genus of compolition that is ture to give it as part of wholly and rigoroully new, any cal profesion de foi, that his air or more than for a poet to form a lan- melody is greatly superior to any guage, idiom, and phraseology, for that can be found in the otherwise himself. All that the greatest and charming cantatas which Cariffimi boldest musical inventor can do, is seems to have invented ; that he is to avail himfelf of the best effu. more natural in his voice-parts, and fions, combinations, and effects, of has given more movements to his his predeceffors; to arrange and ap: bafes than Alef. Scarlatti; that he ply them in a new manner; and to has inore force and originality than add, from his own source, what. Gafparini or Marcello; that his ever he can draw, that is grand, chamber duets are, at least, cqual graceful, gay, pathetic, or, in any to those of Steffani and Clari, who other way, plealing. This Handel were remarkable for no other fpedid, in a molt ample and superior cies of composition ; and though

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the

my music

the late Dr. Boyce used to say that gan-fugues, upon the most natural Handel had great obligations to Co. and pleasing subjects, he has surlonna for his chorusses with instru. passed Frescobaldi, and even Seba. mental accompaniments, it seems in. Itian Bach, and others of his coundisputable that such choruffes were trymen, the most renowned for abi. infinitely more obliged to Handel lities in this difficult and elaborate than he to Colonna, or, indeed, species of composition; and, latly, than they were to all the composers that all the judicious and unpreju. that have ever existed. It is my diced musicians of every country, belief, likewise, that the best of his upon hearing or peruling his noble

, Italian opera fongs surpass, in va, majestic, and frequently sublime riety of style and ingenuity of ac. full anthems, and oratorio choruffes, companiment, those of all preced- must allow, with readiness and rap ing and contemporary composers ture, that they are utterly unac. throughout Europe ; that he has quainted with any thing equal to more fire, in his compositions for them, among the works of the violins than Corelli, and more greatest masters that have existed rhythm than Geminiani; that in fince the invention of counter. his full, masterly, and excellent or, point."

PHILO.

PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS.

NATURAL HISTORY OF LIONS.

[From Dr. SPARRMAN's Voyage to the Cape of Good Hope.)

T had not been dark two yer, from its slow prolonged note, “IT

hours, before we heard the joined with nocturnal darkness, and roaring of lions, which at times the terrible idea one is apt to form appeared to be pretty near us. This to one's self of this animal, it made was the first tiine that I had heard one shudder, even in such places this kind of mufic, and, as there as I had an opportunity of hearing were several performers, it might it in with more satisfaction, and be properly called a concerto of without having the least occasion ljons. They continued roaring the for fear. We could plainly perwhole night, whence my guide ceive by our animals, when the concluded, that they had assembled lions, whether they roared or not, on the plains in order to copulate, were reconnoitring us at a small di and carry on their amours, by stance. For in that case the hounds fighting and attacking each other did not dare to bark in the least, after the manner of cats.

but crept quite close to the Hotten“ To describe the roaring of the tots; and our oxen and horses fighlion as nearly as I can, I must in- ed deeply, frequently hanging back, form the reader that it contisted in and pulling ilowly with all their a hoarse inarticulate found, which might at the strong straps with at the same time seemed to have a which they were tied up to the wag. hollowness in it, something like gon. They likewise laid them. that proceeding from a speaking felves down upon the ground and truinpet. The found is between stood up alternately, appearing as that of a German u and an o, being if they did not know what to do drawn to a great length, and ap. with themselves : and, indeed, I pearing as iť it came from out of may fay, just as if they were in the the earth ; at the same time that, agonies of death.

In the mean after listening with the greatest at- time, my Hottentots made the nctention, I could not exactly hear ceffary preparations, and laid each from what quarter it came. The of them their javelins by the fide found of the lion's voice does not of them. We likewise loaded all bear the least resemblance to thun- our five pieces, three of which we der, as M.de Buffon, tom. ix. p. 22. diftributed among those of our Hotfrom the Voyage of Boullaye le tentots who spoke Dutch. Gouz, affirms it does. In fact, it 5. Fire and lire-brands are uniappeared to me to be neither pecu- versally reckoned, and indeed were liarly piercing nor tremendoas; laid by my Hottentots, to be a

great upon

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great preservative and defence such a case, the lion always rushes against lions and other wild beasts : on the marksman. In another rethey could, however, themselves spect, however, we that lay in the mention instances, in which the lion waggon and at a difiance from the had leaped forward to the fire, and fire, were moít liable to receive a carried off some one of them, who visit from the lions; or at leat to had been fitting round it and warm- fee our horses and oxen, which ing themselves. The animal too were tied up to the waggon, seized has sometimes taken its prey to so by them. Otherwise, for the fin. Ahort a distance, that the poor gularity of the spectacle, I should wretch's companions have plainly have been glad to have seen an atheard it champing and chewing his tack of this kind, if it had not colt flesh. The Hottentots desired us me more than a couple of my oxen, who were placed in the waggon, In such a case, indeed, my horses not to be in too great hafte to fire would probably first have fallen a in cafe a lion should take a leap prey to this rapacious animal, as it among them, for fear that in the

is generally supposed that the lon dark we might at the same time gives them the preference. hurt some of them. They had 6. Among our oxen there was concerted matters so, that some of one which at this time, as well as them should rather attempt to pierce fince upon other fimilar occafions, him through with their haftagais appeared extremely difquieted and or spears, while at the fame inítant restless. It had, befides, a fingular the others should endeavour to and astonishing habit of making an cling about its legs.

inward noisc, which cannot be deThey looked

it

as a cer- scribed; and this was the case liketain fact, and I have since heard wise with the itone-horse, in his own the fame from others, that a lion peculiar way. This, in fact, was does not immediately kill the person fufficient to make us keep ourselves he has got under hím, unless he is in readiness, though it happened excited to do so by the resistance he not to be absolutely necessary: howmeets with. At length, however, ever, we quickly got accustomed it is reported, the royal tyrant gives to it, and several times laid ourthe coup de grace on the victim's felves down to fleep, void of care, breait with a hideous roar. On leaving our beasts to figh on un. ihis occafion I must do my Hotten- heeded. It is, indeed, a wondertots the justice to fay, that they ful circumstance, that the brute did not shew the least fear; though creation Mould have been taught they conceived the old and com- merely by nature to be in dread of monly-received notion to be abso- the lions for our horses and oren lutely true, that both lions and ti. were all from places, where I am gers would attack a llave or a Hot- certain they could have no knotre ientot before they will : coloniit or ledge of this dreadful adverfary a white man. Consequently Mr. of theirs : so that in this we muit Iminelınan and I had no such great admire thc bounty of Providence, reason to be in fear for our own which, while it has sent such a ty. persons, unless more than one lion rant as the lion amongst the anın al Thould come to attack us, or that creation, has likewise taught them we thould discharge our picces too to discern and distinguish it with precipitately and mits him; for in trembling and horror.

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“ One would suppose, that the the animal creation, or otherwise roaring of the lion would prove fer- there would soon be an end of us viceable to the other animals, as men." being a warning for them to betake “ With regard to the testimonies themselves to Hight: but as when of the persons of consequence here he roars, according to all report, he appealed to, I must beg Icave to obputs his mouth to the ground, fo ferve, that we may at any time, that the found is diffused equally all without the least hesitation, call in over the place, without, as we liave queition any polition which milialready mentioned, its being poisi- tates against common sense. .Be. ble to hear from what quarter it dides, in the East Indies, knowledge comes, the animals are intimidated and the appearance of truth are not and scared to such a degree, as to always absolutely inseparable from ily about backwards and forwards authority. I myself have heard a in the dark to every fide ; in conse- man belonging to the council at the quence of which, some of them Cape, relate to strangers the most may easily chance to run on to the ridiculous absurdities concerning the very spot from whence the tremen- country in which he lived. Stories dous found actually proceeds, and of this kind often originate from the which they meant moit to avoid. farmers and yeomen, who come

“ A writer, in other respects ex- from a great distance, and who oftremely rational

, who styles himself ten find their account in amusing Officier du Roi, asserts, in his Yoy- their rulers with pleasing tales; age à l'Ille de France, &c. p. 63, which, the more wonderful they that in Africa there are found whole are, with the greater avidity they armies of lions ; a fact of which, are swallowed. Another source of he fays, he was informed, by three these false reports is in the depraved perfons of confequence in the go- disposition of mankind, who are vernment, whose names he men- very prone to impose as much as tions.

they can on the credulity of the “ This author, as well as his in- weak and fimple. Admitting it to formers, and those, if such there be, be true, that the Romans introduced who have given any credit to him, into their public spectacles a great may be eatily made to conceive the number of lions, which, indeed, palpable abfurdity of the idea by they might ealily collect from the This fingle conlideration, that to extensive tracts of country they por. support armies of lions, it would re- fefled in Africa and Afia, yet it nequire a greater quantity of quadru- ver can be confonant either with peds and game, as it is called, than truth or probability, that armies of is to be found not only in Africa, lions Mhould be found in these quar. but in all the world besides. In or- ters of the globe, where only, acder to confirm this affertion, we cording to the very probable pofimay appeal to a witty observation tion of M. de Button, they exist. made by the Indians, and reported so that when a later writer, the by Lafitau. “ It is a very fortiabbé de Manet, in his description nate circumitance, faid they, that of the northern part of Africa, afthe Portugueio are as few in num-' firms, that the fame kind of lion is ber as they are cruel in their dispo- likewise found in America, we may fit ons ; just as it is with the tigers fately consider this merely as a hafty and lions with respect to the reit of allektion, which is not warranted

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