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" Two out of the three feathers mitted to wear dresses of any co. in an arrow are commonly white, lour, except purple and scarlet, to being plucked from the gander, but loot not only at marks, but birds, the third is generally brown or grey, if not pheafants or herons, and being taken from the goose, and within two miles of the royal pafrom this difference in point of co- laces. They are also enjoined by lour, informs the archer when the the same charter not to wear turs of arrow is properly placed. From a greater price than those of the this most distinguished part there- martin. The most material privifore the whole arrow sometimes re- lege, however, is, that of indemceives its name.

nification from murder, if any per" Though archery continued to fon pafling between the shooter and be encouraged by the king and le- the mark is killed, provided the argillature for more than two centu- chers have first called out fast. ries, after the firit knowledge of the " As it appears by what hath effects of guupowder, yet by the been stated, that both Henry the latter end of the reign of Henry the Eighth and his queen fometimes Eighth, it seems to have been part. attended the archers when they ly confidered as a pauttimc.

were thooting at marks, it is not at “ Arthur, the elder brother of all extraordinary that their drefies Henry, is said to have been fond of began to be expenlive, and that this exercise, in so much, that a they studied much the gracefulness good fhooter was styled prince Ar- of the attitude. thur.

66 Aschain, therefore, who wrote “ We are also informed, that he his Toxophilus at the end of this pitched his tent at Mile End, in reign, hath several chapters on this order to be present at this recrea- head, in which he begins, by ritition, and that Henry his brother culing the aukwardneis of some aralso attended.

chers in this respect, as in the fol“ When the latter afterwards he- lowing citation. came king, he gave a prize at Wind- “ Another coureth downe, and for to those who should excel in layeth out his buttocks, as though this exercise ; and a capital shot he should thoot at crowes. having been made, Henry faid to " Which last part moreover exBarlow (one of his guards) “ if plains a patlage in Shakespeare's you still win, you fall be duke King Lear, act iv. sc. 6. over all archers.” Barlow there- " That fellow handles his bow fore having fucceeded, and living like a crow keeper." in Shoreditch, was created duke • Froin the words above quoted thereof.

it is to be inferred, that when gune “ Upon another occasion, Henry powder was yet very dear, fields and the queen were met by two were kept from crows by unskilful hundred archers on Shooter's Hill, archers, who had no grace in their which probably took its name from attitudes, and were therefore ipoken their assembling near it to shoot at of by the expert with the greatest marks.

contempt, so that to shoot like a “ This king likewise

the crowkeeper,

had become

proverfirst charter to the Artillery Com. bial. pany in the twenty-ninth year of

« Afcham mentions another pithis reiga, by which they are per- ticular with regard to archery in his

gave

time, which is, that (as it com- and in many parts of Flanders; nor monly happens in other paitimes) is it totally neylected in Great Bri: the bets at there shooting matches tain, particularly Lancashire, and began to be confiderable.

London, where a society (of which “ I fall conclude this efTay by our worthy member fir Alhton Lementioning, that the long-bow con- ver is the president) frequently use tinues to be used as it manly exer- this manly recreation." cise by the inhabitants of Geneva,

OBSERVATIONS on the LANGUAGE of the PEOPLE commonly

called GYPSIES. By Mr. MARSDEN,

66

[ From the fame Publication. ] “IT

T has long been surmised that imen familiar to my eye, and

the vagrant tribes of people pointed out to fir Jofeph Banks (in called in this country Gypsies, and the latter end of the year 1783) on parts of the continent of Eu- their evident correspondence with rope, Cingari, Zingari, and Chin- the terins in the Hindoftanic, or as gali, were of castern origin. The it is vulgarly termed in India, the former name has been supposed a Moors language. This fimilitude corruption of Egyptian, and some appeared to me so extraordinary, learned persons have judged it not that I was inclined to suspe't an erimprobable that their language ror in the publication, which might might be traced to the Coptic. have arisen from a confusion of ob

“ In the course of researches scure vocabularies in the author's which I have had occasion to pur. poffeffion. The circumstance, howsue on the subject of language, I ever, determined me to pay farther observed that Ludolfus, in his Hi- attention to the subiect, and to ex. story of Ethiopia, makes mention, amine, in the first place, whether incidentally, of the Cingari vel Er- the language spoken by the Gypsey rones Nubiani, and gives a speci- tribes in England, and by those in men of words which he had col- the remoter parts of the continent lected from these people in his tra- of Europe, were one and the fame; vels, with a view of determining and then to ascertain whether this their origin. He discusses the opi- actually bore the affinity, which so nions of various writers concerning forcibly struck me in Ludolfus, to them, but forms no precise one of any of the languages on the contihis own, concluding his observa- nent of India. tions with there words : “ Eadem “ Through the obliging atlitvocabula, cùm maximam partem ance of fir Jofeph Banks, who has reperiam apud Vulcanium, à cen- fpared no pains to promote this in. tum ferè annis tradita, non fiétitia vestigation, I procured an opportuexiftimo, ut Megiferus putat, nec nity of obtaining a lit of words corrupta ex aliis linguis, neque from our Gypsies, which I can de. Ægyptiaca five Coprica."

pend upon as genuine, and toler. ** I was surprised to find many ably accurate in respect to the proof the words contained in the fpe- nunciation, from their being corroborated by words also taken down, of Guzerat and Sindy with their separately, by fir jofeph, and by piratical depredations. The mariDi. Blagden. Mr. Matra did me time turn of this numerous race of the favour to transinit for me a list people, with their roving and enof words to Turkey, and from his terprising disposition, may warrant ingenious friend Mr. B. Pilani. I the idea of occasional emigrations received a complete and satisfactory in their boats, by the courle of the tranflation of them, together with Red Sea. fome information respecting the “ Notwithstanding that the remanners of the Chinghiarés, in the semblance to the Hindo::anic is the Turkish dominions, which, how- predominant feature in the Gypsey ever, does not come within the de. dialect, yet there are words interfign of this paper, as I mean to spersed, which evidently coincide confine myself, in the present com- with other languages. Beside the munication, simply to che question Mahratta and Bengalele, which I of the similarity of language, which, have marked in thc comparative spea if established,' I should esteem a cimen, it is not a little singular that matter of no little curiosity; pre- the terms for the numerals seven, suming it to be perfectly new to the eight, and nine, are purely Greek, world. Of this fimilarity the learn- although the first five, and that for ed members of the fociety will be "tens are indisputably Indian. It is enabled to form their judgment also a curious obtervation, that alfrom the annexed paper, exhibiting though the Indian term for leven, a comparison of a few of the words being fáath, differs from the Gypprocured from the different quar- sey, yet that for a week, or seven ters before mentioned, with the days, is the citan of the latter. Hindoftanic terms, from the best One word only, among those which published and parole authoriti s. I have examined, bears a resem.

borated

6. It may not be unworthy of re- blance to the Coptic, which is rom, mark, that the general appellation the same with romi, a man. In for these people in the eastern par's comparisons of this nature, a due of Europe, is very nearly connectallowance must be made, not only ed with that of the inhabitants of for the various modes of spelling Ceylon, in the East-Indies, who adopted by different persons and are equally termed Lingalete and different nations, but also for the Chingalese; though at the same dissimilar manner in which the fame time it must be acknowledged that individual found strikes the organs the language of this illund has much of the hearers; of which tome less correspondence with that of the pointed inttances might be given, Gypties, than many other of the “ Should any be inclined to Indian dialects. His grace the doubt (which I scarcely suppose archbishop of York, with his usual possible) of the identity of the Gypdiscernment, suggested to ine the ley or Cingari, and the Hindofianic probability that the Zingari here languages, itill it will be a knowipoken of, may have derived their ledged as no uninteresting subject name, and perhaps their origin, of speculation, that tribes wanderfrom the people called Langari or ing through the mountains of NuLangarians, who are found in the bia, or the plains of Romania, have north-weit parts of the peninsula conversed for centuries in a dialect of H ndoftan, and infest the coats perfectly fimilar to that spoken at this 1785.

N

day

day by the obfcure, despised, and beggars, and whose persons have wretched people in England, whose been (till within the period of a language has been considered as a fa- year) an object of the persecution, bricated gibberish, and confounded initead of the protection of our with a cantin use amongst thieves and laws."

EXTRACT from Mr. STRUTT's ESSAY on the ORIGIN and

PROGRESS of the ART of ENGRAVING,

“ H

[From his Biographical Dictionary of Engravers. ] 'AVING proved, in the one of them dated as early as 1465;

preceding part of this Ef. the rest 1466 and 1467 ; which ac. say, the great antiquity of engrav. count, respecting the two latter ing, it remains now to consider the dates, is confirmed by M. Heinneart in a far more extensive point of ken, an excellent and able writer view, and to examine, when it was upon this subject, whose publicaprofeffedly executed for the pur- tions are frequently referred to in pose of producing specimens on pa- the course of this work. Thesc, it per; which happy invention in- seems, were the earliest German creased its reputation, and rendered prints they could produce with it more generally useful. The con- dates; whereas the first dated en sequence it now acquired with the gravings in Italy, are said to be the public, occafioned its separation geographical charts for an edition from the shop of the goldsmith, and of Ptolemy, published at Rome, worker in metals, with whom it A. D, 1478. The plates for the seems to have remained for many large edition of the Poems of Dante, ages, as a branch of their profeí: invented by Boticelli, and engraved fion; and the engraver by himself by him, or Baldini, did not appear was properly conlidered as an artist till 1481. Hence we find the difof the first rank.

ference of twelve years between the “ The Germans and the Italians date of the Italian engravings and both lay claim to the invention of those produced in Germany. the art of taking impressions from “ It is indeed remarkable, that engraved plates on paper. The no print has hitherto been produced former place their dependence upon by the Italians, which can with the the antiquity of the works which least degree of certainty be attri. they produce; as the engravings buted to Finiguerra. Neither has of the old masters of that country: there been found in the foreign col. the latter upon the positive affertion lections any engravings of a prior of Georgio Vafari, who attributes date to those mentioned above; bue it to Mailo Finiguerra, a Florentine others rudely executed, and withartist; and declares, that it was ac- out date, are mentioned however as cidentally discovered by him about proofs of the exercise of the art as the year 1460.

well in Italy as in Germany, be « Profeffor Christ mentions feve-fore the publication of those prints ral old engravings, evidently the which were dated. But it would be production of tone German artist; highly improper to place an impli

3

cit faith upon an evidence fo doubta last artists for the great edition of ful; for if there be no date to á Dante, dated 1481; we Mall find print, it is totally impossible to af- the strokes, which constitute the certain the time precisely in which madows, laid this way or that in: it was executed; for its rudenets, discriminately, as the engraver and the indifference of its work thought proper, and crossed with manship, are by no means to be second strokes almost continually, considered as certain proofs of its and sometimes with thirds, as the antiquity; though in some cases reader may see upon plate VII. they may have their weight, espe- which is a faithful copy of one of cially when strengthened by other the engravings for Dante. The corroborating circumstances : yet style of the engraving, plate V. is even then a positive decition in their precisely the same as was afterwards favour ought to be very cautiously adopted by Andrea Mantegna ; fee made.

plate VI. which is taken from a 6. From the simplicity of Andrca print executed by hiin: The out. Mantegna's style, I wonder not, line is first cut upon the copper in a that he has been often considered as very powerful manner; and the Maa one of the most early engravers: dows are expressed by simple strokes, For I own, before I was convinced running from one corner of the by experience of the contrary, I plate to the other, without any concluded, that his manner of en- crossing, or considerable variation, graving was, of all others, the most precisely in imitation of drawings ancient. One of the carliest speci- made with a pen. Now, if Finimens of this kind of workmanihip, guerra worked in this ftyle, it is which I have seen, is faithfully co- not reasonable to suppose that his pied, plate V. of this volume. If immediate disciple, Baldini, or Bothe F. which appears upon the pe- ticelli, instructed by Baldini, Mhould destal close to the hand of the seat: have fo totally differed from it. ed figure, be granted to stand for " It is as confidently reported; Finiguerra, the print must be con- on the other hand, that Andrea sidered as a very valuable acquisi- Mantegna learned the art of ena tion; for it would incontestibly graving from the works, if not from prove, that this species of engrave the instructions, of Finiguerra, or ingy which was practised in Italy his scholars. If this be true, it only, was more ancient than any will also appear incredible, that he other adopted in that country, and should not in some measure have in some measure exculpatc Vafari followed the style of his instructors. for attributing the invention to Fi- The print, plate V. has every exa niguerra, even if it should hereaf- ternal appearance of being executed ter be proved that the Germans prior to the works of Mantegna ; practifed the art of taking impref- the mechanical part of whose ena lions from engravings prior to the gravings is far superior, firmer, and Italians. But this interpretation of more decided: It is therefore highly the letter F. is not without soinë probable, that from this master, difficulty: It is exprefly faid by; whoever he might be, Mantegna Vasari, that Baldini was instructed received his first instructions. This by Finiguerra, and Boticelli again fpecies of engraving was carried to by Baldini. Yer if we look at the a still farther degree of perfection plates executed by one or both the by John Antonio Brixianus; and

orhet

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