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utensils, and machines, necessary for camps chief of the expedition, and that colonel Arand artillery. Had congress sent an order nold should be his assistant. They proceedfor supplies, they could not have made out a ed without delay, and arrived in the night list of articles more suitable to their situa- of the 9th of May at Lake Champlain, option, than what was thus providentially posite to Ticonderoga. Allen and Arnold thrown into their hands.

crossed over with E3 men, and landed ncar In about nine days after, three ships, with the garrison. The commander, surprised in various stores for the British army, and a his bed, was called upon to surrender the brig from Antigua, with rum, were taken fort; he asked by what authority ? Colonel by captain Manley. Before five days more Allen replied, " I demand it in the name of had elapsed, several other store-ships were the great Jehovali, and of the continental captured. By these means the distresses of congress." No resistance was made, and the British troops in Boston were increased, the fort, with its valuable stores, and fortyand supplies for the continental army were eight prisoners, fell into the hands of' tie procured. Naval captures being unexpect- Americans. The boats had been sent back ed, were matter of triumph to the Ameri- for the remainder of the men, but the busicans, and of surprise to the British. ness was done before they got over. Colo

FORT TICONDEROGA TAKEN. nel Seth Warner was sent off with a party WHILE these affairs were transacting, a to take possession of Crown Point, where a bold enterprise was undertaken by the serjeant and twelve men performed garriAmericans against the British possessions son duty. This was speedily effected. The on the frontiers of Canada, and this it will next object calling for the attention of the te proper to relate before we return to the Americans, was to obtain the command of transactions of the mother country. Lake Champlain ; but to accomplish this, it

Situated on a promontory, formed at the was necessary for them to get possession of junction of the waters of Lake George and a sloop of war, lying at St. John's, at the Lake Champlain, Ticonderoga is the key of northern extremity of the lake. With the all communication between New-York and view of capturing this sloop, it was agreed Canada. Messrs. Deane, Wooster, Parsons, to man and arm a schooner lying at South Stevens, and others of Connecticut, planned Bay, that Arnold should command her, a scheme for obtaining possession of this and that Allen should command some bavaluable post. Having procured a loan of teaux on the same expedition. A favorable 1000 dollars of public money, and provided wind carried the schooner ahead of the baa sufficient quantity of powder and ball, teaux, and colonel Arnold got immediate they set off for Bennington, to obtain the co- possession of the sloop by surprise. The operation of colonel Allen of that place. wind again favoring him, he returned with Two hundred and seventy men, mostly of his prize to Ticonderoga, and rejoined colothat brave and hardy people who are called nel Allen. The latter soon went home, and green mountain boys, were speedily collect the former, with a number of men, agreed ed at Castleton, which was fixed on as the to remain there in garrison. In this rapid place of rendezvous. At this place colonel manner the possession of Ticonderoga, and Arnold, who, though attended only with a the command of Lake Champlain, were cbservant, was prosecuting the same object, tained, without any loss, by a few determinunexpectedly joined them. He had been ed men. Intelligence of these events was early chosen a captain of a volunteer com- in a few days communicated to congress, pany, by the inhabitants of New-Haven, which met for the first time, at ten o'clock among whom he resided. As soon as he re- of the same day in the morning of which ceived news of the Lexington battle, he Ticonderoga was taken. They rejoiced in marched off with his company for the vicini- the spirit of enterprise displayed by their ty of Boston, and arrived there, though 150 countrymen, but feared the charge of being miles distant, in a few days. Immediately aggressors, or of doing anything to widen after his arrival, he waited on the Massa- the breach between Great Britain and the chusets committee of safety, and informed colonies; for an accommodation was at that them, that there were at Ticonderoga many time nearly their unanimous wish. They pieces of cannon, and a great quantity of therefore recommended to the committees valuable stores, and that the fort was in a of the cities and counties of New-York and ruinous condition, and garrisoned only by Albany, to cause the cannon and stores to about 40 men. They appointed him a colo- be removed from Ticonderoga to the south nel, and commissioned him to raise 400 end of Lake George, and to take an exact men, and to take Ticonderoga. The leaders inventory of them, “ in order that they might of the party which had previously rendez- be safely returned when the restoration of voused at Castleton, admitted colonel Ar- the former harmony between Great Britain mold to join them, and it was agreed that and the colonies, só ardently wished for by colonel Allen should be the commander-in- the latter, should render it prudent and con

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ing of a council of war, which recommended EXPEDITION AGAINST QUEBEC. a retreat to Isle aux Noix, twelve miles south COLONEL Arnold having begun his mili- of St. John's, to throw a boom across the tary career with a series of successes, was channel, and to erect works for its defence. urged by his native impetuosity to project Soon after this event, an extreme bad state more extensive operations. On the 13th of of health induced general Schuyler to retire June he wrote a letter to congress, strongly to Ticonderoga, and the command devolved urging an expedition into Canada, and offer-on general Montgomery. ing with 2000 men to reduce the whole T'his enterprising officer in a few days reprovince. In his ardent zeal to oppose Great turned to the vicinity of St. John's, and Britain, he had advised the adoption of an opened a battery against it. Ammunition offensive war, even before congress had or- was so scarce that the siege could not be ganized an army or appointed a single mili- carried on with any prospect of speedy suctary officer. His importunity was at last cess. The general detached a small body successful. Such was the increasing fervor of troops to attempt the reduction of For of the public mind in 1775, that what in the Chamblee, only six miles distant. Success early part of the year was deemed violent attended this enterprise. By its surrender and dangerous, was in its progress pro- six tons of gunpowder were obtained, which nounced both moderate and expedient. enabled the general to prosecute the siege

Sir Guy Carleton, the king's governor in of St. John's with vigor. The garrison, Canada, no sooner heard that the Americans though straitened for provisions, persevered had surprised Ticonderoga and Crown Point, in defending themselves with unabating forand obtained the command of Lake Cham- titude. While general Montgomery was plain, than he planned a scheme for their re- prosecuting this siege, the governor of the covery. Having only a few regular troops province collected at Montreal about 500 under his command, he endeavored to induce men, chiefly militia and Indians. He enthe Canadians and Indians to co-operate with deavored to cross the river St. Laurence him ; but they both declined. He established with this force, and to land at Longueil, inmartial law, that he might compel the in- tending to proceed thence to attack the behabitants to take up arms. They declared siegers; but colonel Warner with 300 green themselves ready to defend the province, but mountain boys and a four-pounder, prevented refused to march out of it, or to commence the execution of the design. The governor's hostilities on their neighbors.

party was suffered to come near the shore, Congress had committed the management but was then fired upon with such effect as of their military arrangements, in this north- to make them retire, after sustaining great ern department, to general Schuyler and loss. general Montgomery. While the former An account of this affair being communiremained at Albany, to attend an Indian cated to the garrison in St. John's, major treaty, the latter was sent forward to Ticon- Preston, the commanding officer, surren. deroga, with a body of troops from New- dered, on receiving honorable terms of caYork and New-England. Soon after reach-pitulation. ing Ticonderoga, he made a movement down After the reduction of St. John's, general Lake Champlain. General Schuyler over- Montgomery proceeded towards Montreal. took him at Cape la Motte; whence they The few British forces there, unable to stand moved on to Isle aux Noix. About this their ground, repaired for safety on board the time general Schuyler addressed the inhab- shipping, in hopes of escaping down the itants, informing them, “ that the only views river; but they were prevented by colonel of congress were to restore to them those Easton, who was stationed at the point of rights which every subject of the British Sorel river with a number of continental empire, of whatever religious sentiments he troops, some cannon, and an armed gondola. may be, is entitled to; and that in the exe- General Prescot, who was on board with cution of these trusts he had received the several officers, and about 120 privates, har. most positive orders to cherish every Cana- ing no chance to escape, submitted to be dian, and every friend to the cause of liber- prisoners on terms of capitulation. Eleven ty, and sacredly to guard their property." sail of vessels with all their contents, conThe Americans, about 1000 in number, on sisting of ammunition, provision, and inthe 10th of September effected a landing at trenching tools, became the property of the St. John's, which being the first British post provincials

. Governor Carleton was about in Canada, lies only 115 miles to the north- this time conveyed in a boat with mufilel ward of Ticonderoga. The British picquets paddles by a secret way to the Three Rivers, were driven into the fort. The environs and thence to Quebec in a few days. were then reconnoitred, and the fortifica- When Montreal was evacuated by the tions were found to be much stronger than troops, the inhabitants applied to general Montgomery for a capitulation. He informed gallant officer, on hearing of Montgomery's them, that as they were defenceless, they invasion, prepared to oppose him in the excould not expect such a concession, but he tremes of the province. While he was engaged upon his honor to maintain the in- collecting a force to attack invaders in one dividuals and religious communities of the direction, a different corps, emerging out of city, in the peaceable enjoyment of their the depths of an unexplored wilderness, property, and the free exercise of their reli- suddenly appeared from another. In a few gion. In all his transactions, he spoke, wrote, days after colonel Arnold had arrived at and acted with dignity and propriety, and Point Levy, he crossed the river St. Lauin particular treated the inhabitants with rence, but his chance of succeeding by a liberality and politeness.

coup de main was in that short space greatMontreal, which at this time surrendered ly diminished. The critical moment was to the provincials, carried on an extensive passed. The panic occasioned by his first trade, and contained many of those articles, appearance had abated, and solid preparawhich from the operation of the resolutions tions for the defence of the town were adoptof congress could not be imported into any ed. The inhabitants, both English and Caof the united colonies. From these stores nadians, as soon as danger pressed, united the American soldiers, who had hitherto suf- for their common defence. Alarmed for fered from the want of suitable clothing, their property, they were, at their own reobtained a plentiful supply.

quest, embodied for its security. The sailors General Montgomery, after leaving some were taken from the shipping in the harbor, troops in Montreal, and sending detachments and put to the batteries on shore. As colo into different parts of the province to en-nel Arnold had no artillery, after parading courage the Canadians, and to forward pro-some days on the heights near Quebec, he visions, advanced towards the capital. His drew off his troops, intending nothing more little army arrived with expedition before until the arrival of Montgomery, than to cut Quebec. Success had hitherto crowned off supplies from entering the garrison. every attempt of general Montgomery, but At the time the Americans were before notwithstanding his situation was very em- Montreal, general Carleton, as has been rebarrassing. In the choice of difficulties, lated, escaped through their hand, and got the genius of Montgomery surmounted many safe to Quebec. His presence was itself a obstacles. During his short career, he con- garrison. The confidence reposed in his ducted himself with so much prudence, as talents, inspired the men under his command to make it doubtful whether we ought to to make the most determined resistance. admire most the goodness of the man or the General Montgomery having on the first address of the general.

of December effected at Point aux TremAbout the same time that Canada was in-bles a junction with colonel Arnold, comvaded, in the usual route from New-York, a menced the siege of Quebec. considerable detachment from the American Towards the end of the year, the tide of army at Cambridge was conducted into that fortune began to turn. Dissensions broke royal province by a new and unexpected out between colonel Arnold and some of his passage. Colonel Arnold, who successfully officers, threatening the annihilation of disconducted this bold undertaking, thereby cipline. The continental currency had no acquired the name of the American Hanni- circulation in Canada, and all the hard bal. The most pointed instructions had money furnished for the expedition was been given to this corps, to conciliate the nearly expended. Difficulties of every kind affections of the Canadians. It was par- were daily increasing. The extremities of ticularly enjoined upon them, if the son of fatigue were constantly to be encountered. lord Chatham, then an officer in one of the The extremity of winter was fast approachBritish regiments in that province, should ing. From these combined circumstances, fall into their hands, to treat him with all general Montgomery was impressed with a possible attention, in return for the great ex-conviction, that the siege should either be ertions of his father in behalf of American raised, or brought to a summary termination. liberty.

To storm the place was the only feasible While general Montgomery lay at Mont- method of effecting the latter purpose; but real, colonel Arnold arrived (November 8th] this was an undertaking, in which success at Point Levy opposite to Quebec. Such was but barely possible. was the consternation of the garrison and The garrison of Quebec at this time coninhabitants at his unexpected appearance, sisted of about 1520 men, of which 800 that had not the river intervened, an imme- were militia, and 450 were seamen belongdiate attack in the first surprise and confu- ing to the king's frigates, or merchants' sion, might have been successful. The em- ships in the harbor. The rest were marines, barrassments of the garrison were increased regulars or colonel Maclean's new raised by the absence of Sir Guy Carleton; that emigrants. The American army consisted Vol IV.

14

of about 800 men. Some had been left at royal and provincial troops gave way to sen Montreal, and near a third of Arnold's de-timents of humanity. The Americans who tachment, as has been related, had returned surrendered, were treated with kindness. to Cambridge.

Ample provisions were made for their woundATTACK ON QUEBEC AND DEATH OF ed, and no unnecessary severity shown to MONTGOMERY.

any. Few men have ever fallen in battle GENERAL MONTGOMERY having divided so much regretted on both sides as general this little force into four detachments, or- Montgomery. His well-known character dered two feints to be made against the up was almost equally esteemed by the friends per town, one by colonel Livingston, at the and foes of the side which he had espoused. head of the Canadians, against St. John's In America he was celebrated as a martyr gate; and the other by major Brown, against to the liberties of mankind; in Great Britain Cape Diamond, reserving to himself and as a misguided good man, sacrificing to colonel Arnold the two principal attacks what he supposed to be the rights of his against the lower town. At five o'clock in country. the morning of the 31st of December gene

ASPECT OF AFFAIRS. ral Montgomery advanced against the lower A SERIES of disasters followed the royal town. He passed the first barrier, and was cause in the year 1775. General Gage's just opening to attack the second, when he army was cooped up in Boston, and renderwas killed, together with his aid-de-camp, ed useless. In the southern states, where a captain John M'Pherson, captain Cheesman, small force would have made an impression, and some others. This so dispirited the the royal governors were unsupported. Much men, that colonel Campbell, on whom the was done to irritate the colonists and to cecommand devolved, thought proper to draw ment their union, but very little, either in . them off. In the mean time colonel Arnold, the way of conquest or concession, to subdue at the head of about 350 men, passed through their spirits or conciliate their affections. St. Roch, and approached near a two-gun In this year the people of America genebattery, without being discovered. This he rally took their side. Every art was made attacked, and though it was well defended, use of by the popular leaders to attach the carried it, but with considerable loss. In inhabitants to their cause; nor were the this attack colonel Arnold received a wound, votaries of the royal interest inactive. But which made it necessary to carry him off little impression was made by the latter, exthe field of battle. His party nevertheless cept among the uninformed. The great continued the assault, and pushing on, made mass of the wealth, learning, and influence, themselves masters of a second barrier; but in all the southern colonies, and in most of finding themselves hemmed in, and without the northern, was in favor of the American hopes either of success, relief, or retreat, cause. Some aged persons were exceptions they yielded to numbers, and the advanta- to the contrary. Attached to ancient habits, geous situation of their adversaries. The and enjoying the fruits of their industry, loss of the Americans, in killed and wound- they were slow in approving new measures ed, was about 100, and 300 were taken subversive of the former, and endangering prisoners.

the latter. A few who had basked in the This deliverance of Quebec may be con- sunshine of court favor, were restrained by sidered as a proof how much may be done honor, principle, and interest, from forsaking by one man for the preservation of a coun- the fountain of their enjoyments. Some try. It also proves that soldiers may in a feared the power of Britain, and others short time be formed out of the mass of doubted the perseverance of America; but citizens.

a great majority resolved to hazard everyThe conflict being over, the ill will which thing in preference to a tame submission. had subsisted, during the siege, between the

NOTES TO CHAPTER XI.

1 The assembly of South Caro

lina voted 15001. to this fund:
and the committee, in their let.
ter of thanks for the favor, took
care, among other inflammatory
suggestions, to hint that the
parliament, as then constituted,
had no right to levy taxes either
in England or America, and

that "demands which were
made without authority, should

be heard without obedience."
2 This petition having been re.

ferred by the king to the privy.
council, and Dr. Franklin being
summoned in his official ca-
pacity to support the charges,
the lords of the council madel

their report to his majesty,
"that the petition was founded
upon false and erroneous alle.
gations, and that the same is
groundless, vexatious, and scan-
dalous, and calculated only for
the seditious purposes of keep-
ing up a spirit of clamor and
discontent in the province."

CHAPTER XII.

Fatal effects of the War—Meeting of Parliament-Defection of the Duke of Grafton

and General Conway from the Ministry-Introduction of foreign troops— Prohibitory Bill-Changes in the ministryAffairs of Ireland-Debates on foreign troopsConclusion of the Session-Boston evacuated by the BritishSiege of Quebec raised-Americans defeated on the Lakes— Unsuccessful attempt upon CharlestownPreparations against New-York-Declaration of Independence— Americans defeated at Long-Island-New-York taken-Americans retreat into the Jerseys and over the Delaware-Rhode-Island reducedGeneral Lee made prisoner-Hessians cut off at Trenton-British defeated at Princeton.

EFFECTS OF THE WAR.

PARLIAMENT MEETS. The war in America had no sooner se- The parliamentary session commenced riously commenced, than its fatal effects rather earlier than usual, viz. on October were experienced in the trading world. The 26th. His majesty, in a speech of unusual manufactures and trade of Great Britain length, gave the present situation of Ameriappeared completely at a stand in all the ca as a reason for having called the houses great provincial towns and cities. Bristol together early. It was observed, that those and Liverpool, in particular, suffered con- who had too long successfully labored to insiderably, and in the latter place, the Afri-fluence the people in America by gross miscan trade being almost annihilated by the representations, and to infuse into their war, and numbers of seamen having been minds a system of opinions repugnant to thrown out of employ, some dangerous riots the true constitution of the colonies, and to took place in the month of August, and were their subordinate relation to Great Britain, only quelled by the arrival of a military force now openly avowed their revolt, hostility, from Manchester.

and rebellion. They had raised troops, were Notwithstanding the confident boasts of collecting a naval force, had seized the pubministry, that the forces which had been lic revenue, and assumed to themselves levoted in the last session were fully adequate gislative, executive, and judicial powers, to the subjugation of America, it was found which they already exercised in the most that they were not sufficient to maintain arbitrary manner, over the persons and proptheir ground in the city of Boston. erties of their fellow-subjects; and although

Negotiations for foreign troops, therefore, many of these unhappy people might still became absolutely necessary. "Russia was retain their loyalty, too wise not to see the applied to in vain, nor could the Dutch be fatal consequences of this usurpation, and prevailed on to part with their Scotch brig-might wish to resist it, yet the torrent of vioade for this nefarious service.

lence had been strong enough to compel With the slave-merchants of Germany their acquiescence, till a sufficient force the ministers were more successful, and a should appear to support them. number of troops were purchased, like cattle, The rebellious war was now become more of the princes of Hesse and Brunswick. general, and was manifestly carried on for

It is always one of the principal artifices the purpose of establishing an independent of a weak and bad ministry, to amuse the empire. The object was too important, the populace with fabricated plots and conspira- spirit of the British nation too high, the recies to overturn the government

. Previous sources with which God had blessed her too to the meeting of parliament,.something of numerous, to give up so many colonies which this kind was deemed necessary, and a Mr. she had planted with great industry, nursed Sayre, a banker, an American by birth, was with great tenderness, encouraged with cornmitted to the Tower, on a ridiculous many commercial advantages, and protected charge of a plot to seize the king on his and defended at much expense of blood and pisage to the house of peers, and to con- treasure. It was now become the part of vey him out of the kingdom. On an appli- wisdom, and, in its effects, of clemency, to cation, however, by habeas corpus, to the put a speedy end to these disorders by the court of king's-bench, the charge appeared most decisive exertions. For this purpose so frivolous and ill-founded, that Mr. Sayre his majesty had increased his naval estabwas discharged; and he afterwards recovered lishment, and greatly augmented his land in a court of law, 10001. damages against forces; but in such a manner as might be lord Rochford, secretary of state, on an ac- least burdensome to the kingdom. His mation for false imprisonment.

jesty informed them that the most friendly

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