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of the English, by drawing off the forces tracted enormous debts to pay those princes and revenues, as well as the attention of for assisting us in guarding their rights, and France from her navy, from the defence of in fighting their battles. Was such an abher colonies, and from any formidable en-surdity in politics,” they asked, “ ever before terprises against Great Britain. All this heard of! Is England to be the knight-erthey positively contradicted." In the be- rant of Europe, and to neglect her own imginning of the war,” they urged, “while mediate concerns and her solid interests in there was any possibility of supporting their the pursuit of foreign phantoms? Are we to marine, the French attended to this object waste all our resources upon Hanoverians, with the most assiduous care; and while Hessians, Brunswickers;-allies, who, if they saw any likelihood of invading Eng. they merit that name, serve only to protract land with success, they had not the least the feeble efforts of a system, in which no idea of marching into Germany. The elec- thing could so effectually contribute to our torate of Hanover was so far from being safety as an early and total defeat? But even thought in danger, that a body of troops was these connexions,” they said, “ though burbrought over thence to defend this country. densome and unavailing, did not half so much But afterwards when France perceived that expose the ignorance of our negotiators, as we were guarded against insult; that her the treaty made with the king of Prussia, to own navy was destroyed, and her colonies whom we annually paid a sum exceeding exposed; she then bethought herself of the whole amount of the subsidies granted Germany; and it was she, in reality, that in queen Anne's war to all her German allies diverted or transferred the war to the only put together; and who was so far from being place where she was capable of acting, and able to afford any relief to our armies, that where she knew Great Britain must be ex- he was scarcely in a condition to support hausted, even by a succession of victories. himself

. We look upon him, it is true, as The German war was not, on the part of the protector of the Protestant religion: but England, a war of diversion, but a war of how lightly he thinks of all religion, his defence, in favor of a barren electorate, which, writings testify; and what mischiefs he has if put up to sale, would not fetch half the done the Protestant cause in particular, this money that is yearly expended in its behalf; war will be a lasting memorial. He invadfor the protection of a country, whose in-ed and cruelly oppressed Saxony, a Protesthabitants are rendered miserable by the asant country, where he found the people sesistance they receive; and for the support cured from any molestation on account of of an ally, from whom no mutual service their religious opinions. Even among the can be expected. If a third part of the Roman Catholics, persecution had lost much money thus squandered away on the conti- of its edge, when he revived its memory; nent had been employed in giving addi- and, by forcing the popish powers into a strict tional vigor to the naval armaments of union, brought more calamities upon the diGreat Britain, France, by this time, would vided Protestants than they had ever expenot have one settlement left in the West rienced during the utmost rancor of a holy Indies; all the profits of her external com- war." merce must have ceased; and she must have Those, however, who embraced the oppobeen absolutely obliged to accept such terms site side of the question, made a very ingeof peace as England should think proper to nious defence. They ridiculed the idea of prescribe.”

going back half a century to the reign of ON CONTINENTAL ALLIANCES. king William or queen Anne, to examine AFTER having thus commented upon the the principles of a continental war, or to infatuation of Great Britain in renouncing compare the policy and resources of the two the advantages of her naval superiority, and contending nations. “The present time,” in leaving her enemies the choice of a field said they, “is the only just criterion by where defeat could do them little harm, and which we can judge; and here we have where she herself must be exhausted even manifestly the advantage. The success by a succession of her own victories, the which our arms, alone and unassisted, have patriotic speakers made some very severe had in this contest with France, is a sufremarks on the particular engagements we ficient proof that we are an overmatch for had entered into with some of the continen- all her power.” tal powers. “We had," as they asserted, In answer to what had been urged against "officiously meddled with the internal broils the folly of waging war on the continent, of the empire, and taken a part in disputes they ascribed to this very scheme the happy which would have been much better adjust- issue of all our other operations. The ated without our interference. We had not tention of our rival was thereby distracted only sent off from more useful service, the between the different enterprises at sea and flower of our armies to defend the territories land : eagerly grasping at two grand objects, of some petty German princes, but we con- she had missed both ; and the only fruits of

her mighty exertions were the ruin of her ment very clearly what the sense of the natrade, the destruction of her marine, the loss tion was on the subject; and it prevented of her colonies, and the impending terrors the renewal of the annual convention with of a national bankruptcy. “Was it not," the king of Prussia, though assurances were they added, “ by involving France in the at the same time given him of pecuniary German war, that we diverted her from the aid, as before. vigorous defence of her distant possessions, THE FAMILY COMPACT AVOWED. and that we have become masters of some The parliament adjourned to the nineof the most considerable of them? Was it teenth of January. During that recess the not in consequence of her embarking so public attention was roused to an incident heartily in that war, that she afforded us an of national importance. Before the earl of opportunity of giving such a blow to her na- Egremont's dispatches concerning the famval power as she may never, perhaps, beily compact could reach Madrid, the English able to recover ? And has she made any pro- ambassador there had himself received in. gress in Germany to counterbalance her dis- telligence of the treaty, and of the hopes appointments elsewhere? Far from it. At which the French made no secret of derivthis instant she is less advanced than she ing from it. He therefore thought it his was the first year she entered that country, duty to desire some satisfaction on that head after having spent immense sums of money, from Wall, the Spanish secretary of state. and lost by the sword, by disease, and deser- But though he expressed his uneasiness in tion, at least one hundred thousand of her consequence of such rumors with equal people. Even on the continent, where our force and delicacy, Wall, evading a direct enemies have made the most desperate push, reply to the main point of inquiry, entered have they not been frequently defeated ? into a long and bitter complaint, not only of Has not Hanover been recovered and pro- the treatment which Spain had received tected ? Has not the king of Prussia been from the British court, but of the haughtipreserved, so long at least, from the rage of ness of its late proceedings with France. his enemies? And have not the liberties of " He told me," says the earl of Bristol in his Germany in general been hitherto secured? letter of the second of November,“ we were Had we lain by, and tamely beheld that vast intoxicated with all our successes, and a empire in part possessed, and the rest com- continued series of victories had elated us pelled to receive laws from France, the war so far, as to induce us to contemn the reathere would soon have been brought to an sonable concessions France had consented end; and France, strengthened by victory, to make; but that it was evident, by this reconquest, and alliance, would have the whole fusal, all we aimed at was, first to ruin the force and the whole revenue of her monar- French power, in order more easily to crush chy to act against us alone.”

Spain, to drive all the subjects of the ChrisThey argued farther, " that if the support tian king not only from their island colonies of the Protestant religion be any part of our in the new world, but also to destroy their care, that religion must suffer eminently by several forts and settlements upon the conthe ruin of the king of Prussia; for though tinent of North America, to have an easier the writings attributed to his Prussian ma- task in seizing upon all the Spanish domin. jesty be such as, if really his, reflect, on ac- ions in those parts, thereby to satisfy the count of their impiety, great disgrace on his utmost of our ambition, and to gratify our character as a man; yet as a king, in his unbounded thirst of conquest." Wall addpublic and political capacity, he is the nat- ed, with uncommon warmth, that he would ural protector of the Protestant religion in himself be the man to advise the king of Germany; and it will always be his interest Spain, since his dominions were to be overto defend it."

whelmed, at least to have them seized with Whatever might have been the senti- arms in his subjects' hands, and not to conments of the new ministry respecting the tinue the passive victim he had hitherto original policy of the German war, they saw appeared to be in the eyes of the world." very well that it could not now be honora- Such a sudden change of sentiments and bly or consistently relinquished. The faith discourse,-such an abrupt and unprovoked of parliament was also pledged to assist the transition, in the Spanish secretary of state, allies; and the best judges were of opinion, from the most cordial and conciliatory tone that vigorous efforts for one campaign more of friendly profession and amicable adjustwould terminate the contest, and bring the ment, to the most peremptory and haughty French to reasonable terms. The opposi- style of menace and hostility, could not but tion therefore to continental measures, how- astonish and perplex the earl of Bristol. He ever well supported by argument, was over- was naturally led into various conjectures, ruled by numbers, and expired in the warmth to account for this incoherency of behavior. of debate. Yet it was not wholly unpro- At first, he imagined that the late arrival at ductive of good effects. It showed govern- Cadiz of two ships with extraordinary rich cargoes, containing the remainder of the ner what Wall had urged, he returned to wealth that was expected from Spanish his first demand, an explanation concerning America, had raised the language of the the treaty. As often as a direct answer was court of Madrid, added to the progress, evaded, the same question was again put; which, it was reported, the French army was and at length the only reply, that could with making in the king of England's electoral difficulty be extorted, was, “ That his Cathodominions, and the success attending the lic majesty had judged it expedient to reAustrian operations in Silesia. He ascribed new his family compacts with the most the former soothing declarations of the Span-Christian king.' Then Wall, as if he had ish ministers to the consciousness of their gone beyond what he intended, suddenly naval inferiority; and he supposed that those broke off the discourse; and no further saifears were now removed, or greatly abated isfaction could be obtained. by the safe arrival of the above ships, and by AMBASSADOR AT MADRID RECALLED. the continual flatteries of the French, who, On the receipt of these advices from the whilst they inflamed the jealousy of Spain earl of Bristol, the ministry did not hesitate at the British conquests, and solicited a junc- a moment, respecting the line they were to tion of forces to put a stop to them, never pursue. They saw evidently that there was ceased assuring the Spaniards, that even the little reason to hope for any good effects signing of an alliance between the two great from farther patience and forbearance; that branches of the house of Bourbon would in- the continuance of their former moderation timidate England, not only upon account of might be attributed to timidity; and that the its being exhausted by the present long and language of Spain would no longer permit expensive war, but by its having felt the fa- any doubt of her hostile intentions. Not a tal consequences of an interruption of the moment was therefore lost in sending back Spanish trade, during the last war. But, orders to the English ambassador, directing though all these circumstances very proba- him to renew his former instances relative bly co-operated in producing so great a revo- to the treaty with France, and to demand a lution in the Spanish councils; yet the earl clear and categorical declaration from the of Bristol was afterwards convinced, that its court of Madrid, whether they meaned to immediate cause was the intelligence then depart in any manner from their professed received at Madrid of Pitt's violent proposal neutrality, and to join in hostilities against in the cabinet, before he went out of office. Great Britain. These points he was to urge His excellency's sentiments on this point with energy, but without the mixture of any are thus expressed in a subsequent letter to thing which might irritate; and he was farthe earl of Egremont, dated Madrid, De- ther authorized to signify, that a peremptory cember the seventh.

refusal to communicate the treaty, or to dis“What occasioned the great fermentation avow an intention to take part with the deat this court, the effects of which I felt from clared and inveterate enemies of Great general Wall's animated discourse at the Britain, could not be looked upon by the Escurial, was notice having reached the king of England in any light, but as an ac. Catholic king, that the change which had gression on the part of Spain, and as an abhappened in the English administration was solute declaration of war. The earl of Brisrelative to measures proposed to be taken tol acted in strict conformity to such decisive, against this country. Hence arose that sud- yet temperate instructions. He gradually den wrath and passion, which, for a short unfolded the purport and extent of them in time, affected the Spanish court: as it was two conferences with Wall, on the sixth and thought most extraordinary here, that the the eighth of December; and, in two days declaring war against the Catholic king after, he received a letter from that minisshould ever have been moved in his majes-ter, stating that “the spirit of haughtiness ty's councils, since the Spaniards have al- and of discord, which, for the misfortune of ways looked upon themselves as the aggriev- mankind, still reigns so much in the British ed party; and, of course, never could im- government, is what made, in the same inagine that the English would be the first to stant, the declaration of war, and attacked begin a war with them.”

the king's dignity. Your excellency may But whatever impression Pitt's proposal think of retiring when, and in what manmay have made on the minds of the Span- ner, it is convenient to you; which is the iards

, the justest praise was certainly due to only answer that, without detaining his the earl of Bristol's conduct in this delicate majesty has ordered me to give you. conjuncture. Though totally unprepared for SPANISH AMBASSADOR'S MANIFESTO. a conference that differed so widely from all The earl of Bristol left Madrid the serformer conversations on the same subject, he enteenth of December; and on the twentyreplied with coolness to the invectives, and fifth of the same month the Spanish ambaswith firmness to the menaces of the Span-sador in London received letters of recall ish minister. After refuting in the best man- from his court. The note, which he deliv. VOL. IV.

4

you,

ered on that occasion to the secretary of to personal invectives, but proved by an ex-
state, was somewhat in the nature of a mani- act and faithful detail of what had passed
festo, charging the war on the pride and un- between the two courts, that Spain" alone
ineasurable ambition of the late secretary, was to be blamed for all the misfortunes in-
and on the little respect shown to his Catho- separable from a rupture. The facts already
lic majesty, both during that minister's con- related will best show what degree of stress
tinuance in office, and since his resignation. should be laid on the assertions of either
Lord Egremont's memorial in reply, dated party.
the thirty-first of December, did not stoop!

NOTE TO CHAPTER M.

I These were not mere matters of ceremony, as the tenures of sundry manors, and the enjoyment of cer. tain nights and inheritances depended on the performance of particular services at the coronation.

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CHAPTER IV.

War declared against Spain-Debate in the LordsProtest on a Motion for withdrawing the Troops from GermanyPopularity of this Protest-Duty on Beer and Ale causes a tumult in London, Amendments of the Militia LawsAn Act for Registering of Parish Children-Bill for the Extension of the Duke of Bridgewater's Canals — Account of Harrison's Time-piece and Irwin's Marine-chair-Addition to the former Grants of the Commons-His Majesty's Message on the imminent Danger of PortugalThe Session closed with a Speech from the Throne-Extraordinary Change in the King of Prussia's Situation, occasioned by the Death of the Empress of RussiaSteps immediately taken by her Successor, Peter III.Deposition and Death of Peler III.-Prudent Policy of the Empress Catherine II.-Sketch of the Prussian Operations during the Remainder of the Campaign-Victory obtained by the Allies at GraebensteinThis Action a Prelude to Enterprises, in which Gottingen and Cassel were recovered, and the French almost totally driven out of Hesse-Štute of Portugal when threatened by the Bourbon ConfederacyMemorial presented to the Court of Lisbon by the Ministers of France and Spain

- Reply followed by a Declaration of War-Immediate and effectual Assistance afforded by Great BritainLord Tyrawley dissatisfied with the Portuguese Ministry, and recalledPlan of the Campaign-Progress of the Spanish Army under the Marquis de Sarria-Almeida taken, and a considerable part of the Province of Beira overrun by Spanish Troops- Good Consequences of the Count de la Lippe's Arrival in Portugal-Surprise of Valencia d'Alcantara by General Burgoyne_Another more decisive blow struck by the same General and Colonel Lee at Villa Velha - The Spaniards forced to retreat to their own FrontiersTriumphs of Great Britain at Sea-Descent on the Island of Martinico Surrender of the Island-Submission of the Grenades, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and other dependent Isles-Armament destined against the Havannah-Its Harbor describedSiege of the Moro-The Moro stormed, and carried by assault-Operations against the Town, and its SurrenderImportance of this Conquest-Capture of the Hermione, a Spanish Register-ship-Invasion of the Philippines designed-Celerity of the Preparations made for it at Madras-Arrival of the Squadron at Manilla- The Town taken by Storm, but saved from a justly merited Pillage-The Galleon from Manilla to Acapulco tekenThe only Exception to the universal Success of the British Arms, the Failure of a private Expedition against Buenos Ayres—Summary of the Disasters sustained by Spain during her short Concern in the WarFrance involved in the like Calamities-Attempt to burn the British Squadron in the Bay of Basque-Newfoundland taken and retaken-A Negotiation the only Resource of the House of Bourbon.

WAR DECLARED AGAINST SPAIN. was formally proclaimed on the fourth ; and, It would not be very easy to point out any on the nineteenth, being the day to which period of the history of England, in which both houses of parliament had adjourned, the the character of the nation was better sup- king informed them of the steps, which he ported by its government than at the opening was obliged to take since their recess. of the year 1762. Calm, yet resolute; PROTEST AGAINST THE WAR IN GERthreatened by an extraordinary combination

MANY. of enemies, yet prepared to resist their per- THE commons were unanimous in their fidious efforts; the British ministry discov- approbation of his majesty's conduct respectered no precipitation or alarm at Spain's ing Spain, and in their assurances of steady having finally thrown off the mask, but took and vigorous support to prosecute this just the most effectual measures to revenge so and necessary war. The lords agreed to an daring an abuse of their candor and forbear- address expressive of the same sentiments; ance. A clear account of the endeavors but the consideration of the speech gave rise which had been used to accommodate the to a debate on the most effectual means of disputes with Spain in an amicable manner, carrying on the war, in which they discovand of the circumstances which now ren-ered great difference of opinion.

No comdered a rupture unavoidable, was given at plete report of this debate has been prefull length in his majesty's declaration of the served; but the spirit of it may be collected second of January: war against that country from a protest, which was then entered on

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